PHYSICS

Fundamental of Physics

Mass

Wave and Photon

Universe

MASS

MA. Fundamental of Mass MB. Kong Frequency and Kong Wavelength MC. Annihilation and Pair Production

MD. Kong Equation

ME. Kong Atom Model MF. Quantum of Atom MG. Perturbation of Photon

MH. Periodic Table

MI. Chemical Reaction MJ. Superconductor MK. Particles and Waves

ML. Nuclear Physics

ML. NUCLEAR PHYSICS

1. Mass and Its Energy 2. Radioactive Decay 3. Nuclear Fission Reaction 4. Thermonuclear Fusion Reaction

 

INTRODUCTION

 

In this chapter, we will discuss about the energy from the mass, mainly the radioactive decay, nuclear fission and thermonuclear fusion process. These processes involve the transformation of mass to photon or the transformation of potential-time-energy to kinetic-time-energy and the stored time-energy is released during the process.

 

In this chapter, we would like to highlight and propose some alternative interpretations and modifications to the existing theories, which the modifications will help to lighten some explanations about the nature in the topic Universe.

 

This chapter is a very important chapter as the preliminary understandings about the Universe because most of the energy that governing the Universe is the nuclear energy.

 

 

OBJECTIVES

 

1)      To brief about the properties of mass that contributes to the nuclear physics.

2)      To explain and highlight the modifications to the existing theories on nuclear physics.

3)   To brief the fundamental processes that live up the Universe and the preliminary understanding about

      the Universe.

 

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ML.1.0        MASS AND ITS ENERGY

 

From the topic Fundamental of Physics, we developed that mass is the function of magnetic, electric (M&E) and time. Mass possesses its volumetric size due to the M&E field. Under topic Mass, in the chapter Fundamental of Mass, mass is defined as a potential-time-energy. When time prolongs, the excess time of mass undergoes decaying process to release the stored time-energy back to the Universe. More discussion about the creation of mass is presented in topic Universe.

 

We can say that the whole universe is lived up by the mass. The whole source of energy that governing the universe is came from the mass, either chemical or nuclear reaction. The basic concept of energy production is rather simple and straightforward, both chemical and nuclear reaction involve the change of M&E field of mass and thus energy is released in the form of photons or kinetic energy of particles.

 

In any of the nuclear and chemical reactions, only the M&E field of atoms are involved in the reactions, electrons are not taking part in the reactions.

 

The energy released from the mass in nuclear reaction is expressed as follows,

E = ∆mc2 = hf                                                                             eq. ML.1.1

where   ∆m = change of mass

c = the speed of light

h = Planks constant

f = frequency of photon

 

This is the transformation from potential-time-energy to kinetic-time-energy.

 

When an atom spontaneously emits a particle, transforming itself into a different atom and energy is released, this process is named radioactive decay. When a single massive particle splits into two smaller fragments and energy is released, this process is named nuclear fission. If two smaller particles are bound and combined into one bigger particle and energy is released, this process is called nuclear fusion. These processes are the fundamental processes that producing energy and keeping the Universe alive.

 

In the chapter Kong Atom Model, it shows that the atom is made up of nothing but the M&E field. In any of the nuclear physics processes, either cause by external activation or internal disintegration, the M&E field of the atom undergoes restructuring in order to achieve a lower level of energy balance between the two M&E properties. Analogy to the Faradays Law and Ampere-Maxwells Law, which the former is the changing of magnetic field produces electric field and the latter is the changing of electric field produces magnetic field respectively; in the restructuring processes, the change of magnetic and electric properties can be either increase or decrease, the spin and charge of the system may not necessary to be conserved.

 

In any of the nuclear reaction, only the M&E fields of the atoms are involved in the restructuring process, the orbiting electrons which act as the residents in atom are not involved. The role of orbiting electrons is the neutralizing agents to the charge and magnetic moment of the atom.

 

 

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ML.2.0        RADIOACTIVE DECAY

 

Mass are produced during the beginning of the Universe. Naturally, all the elements with high atomic number are unstable and radioactive. When time prolongs, they are decaying in the exponential function by converting the amount of mass into energy. The decaying process is purely depends on time. In other words, mass is a storage of time-energy and the time-energy is released when time passes.

 

The radioactive substance is not stable at the present time; it spontaneously emits a particle, transforming itself in the decaying process into a different substance, which is more stable.

 

The nature of the decay process can be expressed as follow,

N = N0 e-λt                                                                                 eq. ML.2.1

where   N = number of radioactive particles in the sample

N0 = number of radioactive particles in the sample at t = 0

t = time

λ = disintegration constant

 

The radioactive decaying process is in the exponential function.

 

 

ML.2.1        Alpha Decay

 

For a typical alpha decay process, the radioactive substance, Uranium-238, 238U, decays by emitting an α particle, according to the scheme,

 

238U92 234Th90 + 4He2                                                            eq. ML.2.2

 

In this radioactive decay, energy of 4.25MeV is released. The M&E field of the radioactive Uranium particle undergoes restructuring and produces Thorium and Helium. The atomic number, atomic number and the charge of eq. ML.2.2 are conserved.

 

ML.2.1.1        Conservation of Atomic Number

 

From eq. ML.2.2, the total atomic number on the left side is equal to the total atomic number of the right side, which is 238.

 

ML.2.1.2        Conservation of Charge

 

From eq. ML.2.2, the total charge on the left side is equal to the total charge of the right side, which is zero.

 

ML.2.1.3        Conservation of Spin

 

From eq. ML.2.2, the spin of 238U is zero, the spin of 234Th is zero and the spin of 4He is zero. The total spin on the left side is equal to the total spin of the right side, which is zero.

 

ML.2.1.4        Conservation of Energy

 

The atomic mass for

238U = 238.0507847u

234Th = 234.036596u

4He = 4.0026032497u

where   u = atomic mass = 1.6605402x10-27 kg

 

The balance of energy is

E = ∆mc2 = (238.0507847 234.036596 4.002603249)uc2

    = 0.011585451uc2 x 931.4943MeV/ uc2 = 10.79 MeV

 

The positive energy produced shows that the reaction is possible. In this alpha decay process, the atomic number, the charge, the spin and the energy of the system is conserved.

 

 

ML.2.2        Beta Decay

 

A radioactive substance that decays spontaneously by emitting an electron or positron is said to undergo the beta decay. For example,

 

32P15 32S16(1+) + ph                                                                eq. ML.2.3

where   ph = photon

 

In eq. ML.2.3, the M&E field of the radioactive phosphorus element is restructured to become sulfur element and energy is released. The atomic number increases but the due to the lacking of electron supply, the sulfur element is at positively charge of 1+. The restructuring of the M&E field of phosphorus does not produce electron and electron does not involve in the restructuring process. Photon energy is released in this process.

 

ML.2.2.1        Conservation of Atomic Number

 

From eq. ML.2.3, the total atomic number on the left side is equal to the total atomic number of the right side, which are 32.

 

ML.2.2.2        Conservation of Charge

 

From eq. ML.2.3, the total charge on the left side is zero but the total charge of the right side is 1+. The charge is not conserved in this process. The M&E field of the Phosphorus element is purely restructuring without producing any particles but releasing a photon. The proton number of Phosphorus is 15 while the proton number of Sulfur is 16, the increase of one proton number causes the system lack of one electron. Therefore, the Sulfur element is in positive charge of 1+.

 

ML.2.2.3        Conservation of Spin

 

From eq. ML.2.3, the spin of 32P is one, the spin of 32S is zero and the spin of photon is one. The total spin on the left side is equal to the total spin of the right side, which is one.

  

ML.2.2.4        Conservation of Energy

 

The atomic mass for

32P = 31.973615u

32S = 31.9720707u

where   u = atomic mass = 1.6605402x10-27 kg

 

The balance of energy is

E = ∆mc2 = (31.973615 31.9720707)uc2

    = 0.0015443uc2 x 931.4943MeV/ uc2 = 1.44 MeV

and

E = hf

where   h = Planks constant

f = frequency of photon

 

The released photon has the frequency of 3.48x1020 Hz, which falls within the range of gamma-ray.

 

The positive energy produced shows that the reaction is possible. In this beta decay process, the atomic number, the spin and the energy of the system is conserved. The charge is not conserved due to the restructuring of the M&E field of atom.

 

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ML.3.0        NUCLEAR FISSION REACTION

 

A typical nuclear fission reaction is presented for discussion, which emphasize more on the alternative interpretation of the fission process. In a typical 235U fission event, the activation of the process is by adding a thermal neutron into the system. However, instead of thermal neutron, we would like to replace it with a hydrogen atom for discussion.  

(Note that in the whole topic of mass, we never mention on the existence of neutron particle)

 

The fission process is a multiple stage reaction which takes place as follow,

 

235U92 + 1H1 140Xe54 + 94Sr38(1+) + 2 1H1                               eq. ML.3.1

 

The 140Xe54 and 94Sr38 particles are both highly unstable, undergoing beta decay until each reaches a stable end product. In the fission process shown in eq. ML.3.1, among the three products, element Strontium is the most electropositive, therefore, the inadequacy of electrons causes atom Strontium to be positive charge 1+.

 

For 140Xe54,

 

140Xe54 140Cs55(1+) + ph                                                         eq. ML.3.2

140Cs55(1+) 140Ba56(2+) + ph                                                    eq. ML.3.3

140Ba56(2+) 140La57(3+) + ph                                                    eq. ML.3.4

140La57(3+) 140Ce58(4+) + ph                                                    eq. ML.3.5

 

For 94Sr38(1+),

 

94Sr38(1+) 94Y39(2+) + ph                                                          eq. ML.3.6

94Y39(2+) 94Zr40(3+) + ph                                                          eq. ML.3.7

 

The overall fission process is,

 

235U92 + 1H1 140Ce58(4+) + 94Zr40(3+) + 2 1H1 + 6 ph                eq. ML.3.8

 

ML.3.1        Conservation of Atomic Number

 

For all the eq. ML.3.1 to ML.3.8, the total atomic number on the left side is equal to the total atomic number of the right side.

 

ML.3.2        Conservation of Charge

 

From eq. ML.3.8, the total charge on the left side is zero but the total charge of the right side is 7+. The charges of atom Cerium and Zirconium are accumulated from each beta decay reaction.

 

ML.3.3        Conservation of Spin

 

From eq. ML.3.8, the spin is not conserved.

  

ML.3.4        Conservation of Energy

 

The atomic mass for

235U = 235.0439242u

140Ce = 139.905433u

94Zr = 93.9063148u

1H = 1.007825032u

where   u = atomic mass = 1.6605402x10-27 kg

 

The balance of energy is

E = ∆mc2

    = (235.043924 + 1.007825032 139.905433 93.906314 2(1.007825032))uc2

    = 0.224351968uc2 x 931.4943MeV/ uc2 = 208.98 MeV

 

The positive energy produced shows that the reaction is possible. The energy is released in the form of kinetic energy of atom hydrogen and photons.

 

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ML.4.0        THERMONUCLEAR FUSION REACTION

 

If two smaller particles are bound and combined into one bigger particle and energy is released, this process is called nuclear fusion. The Sun in the solar system is undergoing thermonuclear fusion where the basic fuel of burning is hydrogen atoms. Similar to all the stars appear in this Universe, the thermonuclear fusion reaction produces energy to light up the Universe.

 

The fusion reaction in the sun is a multiple stage reaction which takes place as follow,

Stage 1,

            1H1 + 1H1 2H1 + e-               (Q = 1.44 MeV)                eq. ML.4.1

Spin:        +       1  + (bi-product)

 

In this reaction, two hydrogen atoms combine into one deuterium atom by producing an electron as bi-product. The electrons do not involve in the reaction, one of the electron of hydrogen atom is neutralizing the deuterium atom, while another electron is released as bi-product.

 

The process is illustrated in figure ML.1.0 below,

 

 Figure ML.1.0

 

Step A - Two hydrogen atoms come closer to each other.

Step B - If the two atoms are collided at the correct orientation, the magnetic gauss line of each atom will merge.

Step C - The merging of magnetic gauss line continues.

Step D - The merging process completes and forms another atom with higher atomic number.

 

 

The reaction of eq. ML.4.1 is illustrated in figure ML.4.1 above. Two hydrogen atoms are combined in such away that the magnetic dipole moment is aligned. The combination of two atoms causes restructuring of M&E field and produces deuterium atom and electron as bi-product.

 

In this process, the energy is released in the form of kinetic energy of deuterium atom and electron.

 

There are two possibilities for stage 2, they are,

Stage 2a,

            2H1 + 2H1 4He2 + 2 ph         (Q = 23.85 MeV)              eq. ML.4.2

Spin:      1   +   1      0   +  2(1)

 

In this restructuring process, two deuterium atoms combine to become helium atom and produce 2 photons. The energy is released in the form of kinetic energy of helium atom and production of photons. Stage 2a shows the completion of the fusion reaction. Otherwise, stage 2b is another possibility.

 

Stage 2b,

            2H1 + 1H1 3He2 + ph            (Q = 5.49 MeV)                eq. ML.4.3

Spin:       1 +           +  1

 

In this restructuring process, one deuterium atom combines with another hydrogen atom to form an isotope helium atom and produce a photon. The energy is released in the form of kinetic energy of helium atom and production of photons.

 

Stage 2b is still no complete for thermonuclear fusion process. Another stage is required as shown below.

 

Stage 3,

            3He2 + 3He2 4He2 + 2 1H1    (Q = 12.86 MeV)              eq. ML.4.4

Spin:         +          0    + 2()

 

Stage 3 completes the stage 2b process as the thermonuclear fusion reaction.

 

 

ML.4.1        Overall Thermonuclear Fusion Reaction

 

The overall process is as follow,

 

            4 1H1 4He2 + 2 e- + 2 ph      (Q = 26.73 MeV)              eq. ML.4.5

Spin:     4()    0 + bi-product + 2(1)

 

Four hydrogen atoms are combined to form a helium atom and photons and electrons are the bi-products. The helium atom and electrons produced are at high kinetic energy.

 

The thermonuclear process may continue to form heavier substance such as carbon, oxygen, magnesium and etcetera.

 

There are trillions of the similar thermonuclear fusion reactions happen in the Sun. The Sun is in the plasma form and highly negative charged due to the electrons as bi-products; and releasing high energy photons. There are also trillions of collisions between the charged particles which produce electromagnetic wave in wide range inclusive of visible light. More description about the Sun is presented in the chapter Sun under the topic of Universe.

 

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DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS

 

Mass is defined as a potential-time-energy and it is the storage of time-energy. When time prolongs, the excess time of mass undergoes decaying process to release the stored time-energy back to the Universe in the function of exponential.

 

When an atom spontaneously emits a particle, transforming itself into a different atom and energy is released, this process is named radioactive decay. When a single massive particle splits into two smaller fragments and energy is released, this process is named nuclear fission. If two smaller particles are bound and combined into one bigger particle and energy is released, this process is called nuclear fusion. These processes are the fundamental processes that producing energy and keeping the Universe alive.

 

In any of the nuclear physics processes, either cause by external activation or internal disintegration, the M&E field of the atom undergoes restructuring in order to achieve a higher level of energy balance between the two M&E properties. In the restructuring processes, the change of magnetic and electric properties can be either increase or decrease, the spin and charge of the system may not necessary to be conserved.

 

In any of the nuclear reaction, only the M&E fields of the atoms are involved in the restructuring process, the orbiting electrons which act as the residents in atom are not involved.

 

The alpha and beta decay are two natural radioactive reactions and energy is released. The nuclear fission reaction can be used to generate nuclear power and thermonuclear fusion reaction is the process happen in the Sun. Modifications are made to the existing theories in detail descriptions. Nuclear fission will produce elements with positively charged and nuclear fusion will emit electrons as bi-product.

 

These nuclear reactions are very important in governing the activities in the Universe. Thermonuclear fusion reaction happens in the Sun and nuclear fission reaction happens on the Earth. These two fundamental processes are providing the energy required for the activities on the Earth.

 

Due to the natural reactions of radioactive decay and nuclear fission which happen on the Earth, the Earth is positively charged. Due to the positive charge of the Earth, the rotation of the Earth produces the magnetic field. More details are described in the chapter Earth.

 

The thermonuclear fusion process happen on the Sun causes the Sun to be highly negative charged due to the bi-product of electrons. The strong electric field of the Sun pulls all the planets circulating it. More details are described in the chapter Sun.

 

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