|MA. Fundamental of Mass||MB. Kong Frequency and Kong Wavelength||MC. Annihilation and Pair Production|
|ME. Kong Atom Model||MF. Quantum of Atom||MG. Perturbation of Photon|
|MI. Chemical Reaction||MJ. Superconductor||MK. Particles and Waves|
From the topic "Fundamental of Physics", we quote that mass is a substance that contains magnetic and electric (M&E) field and time. The ingredient of mass is nothing but the M&E field. Mass is not a solid or stuffed object. Mass possesses its 'volumetric' size due to the M&E field.
To understand the mass in detail, we begin from the tiny atomic level of mass, which are the electrons and atoms. This topic of mass is divided into 12 major chapters.
The first chapter discusses about the fundamental of mass. It gives a brief conceptual of mass and describes that moving particles do not travel as waves. There are shortcomings which pointed out by the author that electrons do not travel as waves. Furthermore, some shortcomings on the wave-model electrons in the atom are also brought up for discussions. The arbitrary solutions of the Schrödinger equation using wave model are highlighted for discussions too.
The second chapter is The Kong Frequency and The Kong Wavelength. This chapter explains and proves that electrons do not travel as waves, and adheres to the special relativity principle. The moving particles achieve the De Broglie wavelength is because of the energy level correspondent to the wave energy. In this chapter, the Kong Frequency and the Kong Wavelength are developed to describe the energy level of the moving particles. The Kong wavelength is verified with the Davisson-Germer Experiment.
Chapter ‘MC’ discusses about the annihilation and pair production. Annihilation process is the transformation of particles to photons. Pair production process is the transformation of photon to particles. The formation process gives a brief idea on the structure of mass. In this chapter, the radius, the spin angular momentum and the spin magnetic dipole moment of electron are derived.
The forth chapter is the Kong Equation. The Kong equation develops a new set of quantum number of atom. The Kong equation is divided to the Time Dependent Kong Equation and the Time Independent Kong Equation. The Time Dependent Kong Equation gives solution to the orbiting electron in the atom and the Time Independent Kong Equation gives solutions to the entire quantum numbers of atom. The Kong Equation gives initial solutions and concepts to the entire atom structure.
The fifth chapter discusses about the fascination of the Kong Atom Model. As described that the charged particles do not travel as waves and electrons do not travel as wave in the atom, from the help of the Kong Equation, a new concept of the Kong atom model is proposed. A new quantum property is introduced which is the magnetic gauss line. In this chapter, all the quantum quantities are properly derived, namely the electron velocity, the quantized radius, the magnetic gauss line, the magnetic dipole moment, the angular momentum and the state energy. Another important function is the Kong function that use to determine the quantum properties of atom for different kinds of substances. The Kong Atom Model is verified with the hydrogen atom model and the Moseley Plot. From the Kong atom model, it is also able to further describe the perturbation of electron, periodic table, the chemical reaction, the structure of molecule, superconductors and etcetera.
The sixth chapter, chapter ‘MF’, gives a full set of quantum number to describe the atom structure and the addresses of electrons in atom. The quantum numbers of atom are the principle orbital number, the sub-orbital number and the electron number. It describes the configurations of electrons in an atom and proposes an addressing method for elements in periodic table. The developed quantum number is compared and discussed with the solutions of the Schrödinger Equation. It is surprisingly good that the quantum number developed by the Kong Equation is tally and able to overwrite the Schrödinger equation.
The following chapter seventh, discusses about the perturbation of photon. When electron transits from one state energy to lower state energy, photon is released and vise versa. In this chapter, the phenomena of photoelectric effect, the cathode tube and the barrier tunneling are discussed.
Chapter ‘MH’ discusses about the Periodic Table. Each element in the Periodic Table is given a set of electron addresses. The same electron configuration for each vertical period explained the same chemical properties of the elements. The reasons for the colorful transition metals are also proposed.
The next chapter, chapter 'MI' describes on the chemical reaction between substances. The chemical bonding and the shape of molecule are modeled base on the Kong atom model and quantum number. The ionic bonding, the tetrahedron shape of methane molecule, the pi-bonding of ethene molecule and the ‘V’ shape of water molecule are discussed.
The following chapter tenth discusses on the superconductor. It explains the reasons on the superconductor possesses magnetism at extremely low temperature and ceramic possesses superconductor characteristic at elevated temperature.
Chapter eleventh is the particles and waves. The Rutherford’s experiment and the G.P. Thomson experiment are discussed. The reasons for the diffraction and interference of electrons are explained. This chapter also discusses on the collision process of particles, where meta-stable particle-photon are produced. Another type of photon-particle is described too.
The last chapter of Mass briefs on the nuclear physics. With the help of the Kong atom model and the characteristic of atom, modeling on the radioactive decay, nuclear fission and thermonuclear fusion reactions are proposed.
Up to this stage, the readers shall be able to have a better and deeper understanding on the mass. The readers shall be able to relate and find out more things that can be explained with the atom model given. Mass has nothing except the structure of M&E field and time, which are virtual.
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This website is originated on 15-Mar-2007,
updated on 4-Jan-2009.
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