Fundamental of Physics


Wave and Photon



MA. Fundamental of Mass MB. Kong Frequency and Kong Wavelength MC. Annihilation and Pair Production

MD. Kong Equation

ME. Kong Atom Model MF. Quantum of Atom MG. Perturbation of Photon

MH. Periodic Table

MI. Chemical Reaction MJ. Superconductor MK. Particles and Waves ML. Nuclear Physics


1. Perturbation and State Energy 2. Photoelectric Effect 3. Cathode Tube

4. Barrier Tunneling





The Kong Atom Model is well applicable to the principle of energy transfer and the properties of the electrons in atom. Circulating electrons are not tied but stiffly bound to the atom due to the balance of magnetic and electric (M&E) forces. Due to this characteristic, electrons are able to travel from one energy state to another energy state easily and reactive to external perturbations.





1)      To describe the phenomenon of energy transfer within atom.

2)      To describe the phenomenon of photoelectric effect due to the energy line.

3)      To describe the phenomenon of cathode tube due to the energy line.

4)      To describe the phenomenon of barrier tunneling.







Electron travels on the magnetic gauss line is sensitive and fragile to external perturbations. Any disturbance to the electron will cause the electron to change energy state by hopping from one gauss line to another gauss line. Electrons jump from lower to higher energy level when absorb energy from external, and release energy when drop from higher to lower energy level. The change of energy is quantized due to the quantized energy level of atom. This quantized energy is named photon, which is expressed by,

                                                                    … eq. MG.1.1

where   E2 = Energy level at state 2

E1 = Energy level at state 1

DE = Net change of energy

h = Plank’s constant

f = c / l = Frequency of electromagnetic waves

c = Speed of light

l = Wavelength of electromagnetic waves


From the topic ‘Wave and Photon’, photon is electromagnetic (EM) wave. As described, EM wave is the kinetic-time-energy at time zero. Photon is a kind of kinetic energy travels at the speed of light, transfers from one point to another point by oscillating the M&E field.


When a photon meets an electron, the kinetic energy of photon is transferred and absorbed by the electron. The electron gains the kinetic energy from the photon and move to another state of energy, traveling on another magnetic gauss line with the new total kinetic energy level.







The phenomenon of energy perturbation to electrons is also observed in the photoelectric effect. If a beam of light is shone on a metal surface under right condition, the light can ‘knock’ electrons out of that surface. This phenomenon is called Photoelectric Effect.


For metal object, free electrons travel on the surface surrounding the metal. At elevated temperature, electrons travel on the weak energy line on the surface of the metal. When a correct photon hits on an electron on the metal surface, the electron gains sufficient energy to leave the energy line and escape from the metal surface.


The absorption of photon depends on the photon frequency. If the total energy of the reacted electron is higher than the escape energy, the electron will leave the metal surface.





MG.3.0        CATHODE TUBE


As mentioned above, on metal surface, electrons are loosely bound on the surrounding of the metal atoms through weak magnetic field. For metal whose possesses high conducting resistance such as tungsten, when it is heated up, the loosely bound electrons gain energy and able to escape from the weak magnetic field. The surface of the tungsten metal produces a cloud of electrons that ready to escape. When electrons are attracted by the external positive electric potential, electrons will escape and run towards the positive electric potential.


When a deflector along the path of electrons exerts the magnetic or electric field to the electrons incident beam, the electrons incident beam will be bent or diverted. The electrons incident beam will be offset from the center point on the target. This principle is widely applied in the Cathode Tube.







Usually, when an object hits on an obstruction, the object will bounce back if the obstruction is hard and stiff. Similarly, when an electron from the left hits on a barrier, the electron would be reflected back in the direction from which it came. However, in quantum mechanics, there is a finite chance that the electron will appear on the other side of the barrier and continue its motion to the right. This phenomenon is named "Barrier Tunneling".


The phenomenon can be described that the electron enters to the surface of the barrier from the left side. When the electron meets the energy line of the barrier, it falls from the high energy level to lower energy level. The change of the energy level release photon, which is described by the Perturbation of state energy.


The photon then may travel from the left side to the right side and meets another electron at lower energy level. The photon excites the electron and causes the reacted electron to escape from the right side of surface. The escaped electron travels onwards from the right end and continues its motion. This phenomenon is the Photoelectric Effect.


The electron is considered instantly appear on the right side. This energy transfer process has no time delay because the energy transfer happened at the speed of light.







Electrons circulate in atom are due to the balance of the magnetic and electric forces, which is described by the Hall Effect. Due to this phenomenon, electrons are fragile and easily change the energy state from one to another magnetic gauss line when disturbed by external perturbation. The energy changed is quantized due to the quantized energy level in atom. The quantized energy is named photon.


Photoelectric effect is a phenomenon where photon energy is transferred to the electrons on the metal surface and causes the electron to escape from the metal surface.


The working principle of the cathode tube is due to the assembly of the high energy level electrons on the heated metal surface. Electrons escape when attracted by the external positive electric potential.


Barrier tunneling is caused by two consequence phenomena. The first portion is the perturbation where the moving electrons are stopped and photons energy is released. The second phenomenon is the photoelectric effect where photons hit on the electrons on another side and excite the electrons to escape.


The solutions of the Kong Equation and the Kong Atom Model show that electrons circulate in atom is due to the balance of M&E forces, but not tied to the atom. The explanation on the perturbation of photon is surprisingly convincing to show that the electrons are freely transiting from one energy line to another energy line. The transition of electrons between the quantized energy  line corresponds to the quantized energy of photon.





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updated on 4-Jan-2009.

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