Fundamental of Physics


Wave and Photon



MA. Fundamental of Mass MB. Kong Frequency and Kong Wavelength MC. Annihilation and Pair Production

MD. Kong Equation

ME. Kong Atom Model MF. Quantum of Atom MG. Perturbation of Photon

MH. Periodic Table

MI. Chemical Reaction MJ. Superconductor MK. Particles and Waves ML. Nuclear Physics


1. Mass and Its 'Volumetric' 2. Discrepancies Between Particles and Waves 3. Electrons in Atom 4. Schrödinger Equation




Before we discuss deeper about the mass, the author would like to brief the readers. The author begins the understanding from the fundamental of physics. Before the author develops all the derivations and theories, he has a basic understanding in his mind. It is suggested that the readers shall follow the way of thought of the author in order to capture the whole concept easily.


After the author had developed most of the related things about the mass, the 'statements' made below are the overall conceptual of mass. It is recommended that the readers shall read through the 'statements' below and keep in your mind.





1)      To brief about the properties of mass.

2)      To dictate the discrepancies between particles and waves.

3)      To highlight the shortcomings of wavelike electron in atom.

4)      To highlight the arbitrary assumptions of Schrödinger Equation.







From chapter "Fundamental of Physics", it is described that mass is a substance that contains magnetic and electric (M&E) field and time. Here, we rephrase that mass is a function of M&E field and time. Mass possesses its 'volumetric' size due to the M&E field. It is not a stuffed or solid object.


Mass is a function of M&E field and time. When time prolongs, the ‘excess’ time of mass undergoes decay to release the stored time-energy back to the universe, in the form of light or electromagnetic (EM) waves. Mass is a potential-time-energy. Light is kinetic-time-energy.


Also as shown by Albert Einstein, E = mc2, where decaying of mass produces light. Therefore, we can make a reverse conclusion that mass is made by light. Since light contains M&E property, mass shall also contain M&E property. In short, we can conclude that the ingredient of mass is nothing but the M&E field.


For better illustration and understanding, we relate mass and light base on the reverse decaying process. Here, we state the natural law without proof that,


"Generally, light is a traveling point energy. Mass is a non-traveling point energy. Under certain circumstances, the perpendicular M&E field of the light can be deformed into two separate obvious M&E characteristics with a common field center. The magnetic and electric characteristics cannot be independent because each causes each to occur according to the laws of induction."


It is suggested to the readers that this page shall be reviewed after gone through all other chapters on the mass. The review of the fundamental of mass will give a better understanding about mass and give wider space of thought to the readers.







Till today, it is commonly accepted that particles can have particle and wave like characteristics. Particles wave such as sea wave, sound wave and etcetera shows that particles can travel as wave. The author does not deny it thoroughly. However, the author would like to highlight few things as follows:-


1)  From the topic 'Wave and Photon'. Waves are one kind of kinetic energy transfer from one point to another point.

2)   For electromagnetic (EM) waves, the M&E components oscillate up and down and left and right perpendicular to each other respectively. This is different for particle waves, where particles oscillate up and down or left and right or front and back. Particle waves never oscillate in dual-directions.

3)   In particle waves, particles only oscillate on its on origin where the resultant movement or the displacement of particles is zero. For EM waves, the photon travels from one point to another point.

4)   Particle waves never achieve the speed of light. This clearly differentiates between the particle waves and EM waves.

5)   Moving electrons produces magnetic field, but traveling EM waves do not produce magnetic field.

6)   EM wave is massless but electron has mass.



MA.2.1        Do Electrons Travel as Waves?


Electron is particle. The arguments which questioned by the author is "Do moving charge particles such as electrons travel as wave?" It is clearly mentioned above and agreed that particle waves travel by oscillating up and down or left and right or front and back. Particle waves transfer energy by oscillating on the same origin without movement from one point to another point. Electrons move from one point to another point do not act as particle wave, but adhere to the special relativity principle of kinetic energy. Moving electrons produces magnetic field that interact with external magnetic field.


If electron waves travel by oscillating in the same way, does electron emit EM wave? Otherwise, how electrons produce EM wave through the magnetron as proven by the Maxwell law of induction? This tells that moving electrons do not act like particle waves. The only conclusion that can be made here is


"Moving electrons do not travel as wave, nor moving particles do not travel as wave."


Moving particles only follow the law of special relativity, but never follow the law of waves. As shown by W. Bertozzi for the ultimate speed experiment by accelerating electrons. Electrons can never achieve the ultimate speed of light. Therefore, electrons cannot achieve the properties of the EM wave.


As describe in the topic 'Wave and Photon', wave is a method of transferring energy, but not transferring substances or particles. Wave is a phenomenon of energy transfer from one point to another point, which does not involve object to be moved from one point to another point.







As described above, electrons do not travel as waves. Then, do electrons travel as wave in atom? Below are few descriptions:


1)   EM wave does not show up clearly the separation of M&E characteristics. However, orbiting electrons in an atom do show the M&E characteristic.

2)   The wave model of electrons in atom does not explain the various shapes of molecules.

3)   The wave function of electron in atom has too many purposely made constraints that are not convincing to the author.

4)   The probability density of an electron within an atom violent the law of quantization. Probability contradicts to quantization. In quantum mechanics, the continuous characteristics of probability is not convincing in explaining the position of electron.

5)   The angular momentum and magnetic dipole of atom show that electron is circulating in an atom.

6)   The electron cloud in an atom does not explain why the electrons do not collapse into the nucleus.

7)   The electron cloud in an atom does not explain why the electrons do not clash with each other or knock out each other as shown in the photoelectric effect.

8)   The electron cloud in an atom does not explain the momentum balance of electrons in the atom.


Moving particles do not travel as waves. Orbiting electrons in atom exert a centrifugal force. It is the nature of accelerating or de-accelerating electrons produce EM wave. But electrons circulate in atom without releasing EM waves and electrons never collapse into atom. These curiosities will be explained in the chapters "Kong Equation" and "Kong Atom Model".







Currently, the Schrödinger equation is used to define the quantum mechanics for atom. However, there are few doubts that draw the attention of the author. They are:-


1)   Schrödinger equation does not adhere to the special relativity principle.

2)   The solution of the azimuthal equation is not convincing where the magnetic quantum number is arbitrary base on eigen value.

3)   The solution of the colatitude equation and the assignment of angular momentum are arbitrary without proper basis.

4)   The solution of the radial equation and the assignment of the principle quantum number are also arbitrary.

5)   The derivation of the bound state energy equation violates the law between the waves and particles. The energy equation is developed using particles model while the principle quantum number is developed using waves model. The electrons are said following the waves model where centrifugal force does not exist, but the energy equation is developed using the basis of centrifugal force.

6)   The state energy developed using Bohr's model violates the law of special relativity where the energy is only applicable to low velocity moving particles. The derivation uses the low velocity kinetic energy equation.

7)   In the current atom quantum model, everything is quantized except the probability density of electrons, where electrons movement is not quantized. This violates the law of quantum. EM wave can be quantized as photon, if electrons travel as waves in atom, they should be able to be quantized too.

8)   It is explained and proven in the chapter "Kong Frequency and Kong Wavelength" that particles do not travel as wave, the solutions of Schrödinger equation is void.







Mass is a potential-time-energy and made up of M&E field and time. Mass possesses its ‘volume’ due to the M&E field.


Electrons and waves have different properties and they are two different ‘thing’. Mass is a kind of potential-time-energy, wave is a kind of kinetic-time-energy. Electrons do not travel as waves. Therefore, all the theories developed using the particle-wave model shall be void and revised.


Orbiting electrons in an atom do not travels as wave, but adhere to the special relativity principle, which is described in the Kong atom model.


Schrödinger equation is not complying with special relativity principle. The solutions of Schrödinger equation are arbitrary. Since electrons are not wavelike, the application of Schrödinger equation is not appropriate.





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updated on 4-Jan-2009.

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