Fundamental of Physics


Wave and Photon



MA. Fundamental of Mass MB. Kong Frequency and Kong Wavelength MC. Annihilation and Pair Production

MD. Kong Equation

ME. Kong Atom Model MF. Quantum of Atom MG. Perturbation of Photon

MH. Periodic Table

MI. Chemical Reaction MJ. Superconductor MK. Particles and Waves ML. Nuclear Physics


1. Superconductor Materials 2. Ceramic Superconductor    




After studying through the chemical reaction, we have better understanding on the structure of molecules and substances. We have a better visual on the movement of electrons in the structures. In this chapter, we describe about the electrons movement in macroscopic structures. The electrons movement in metals and semiconductors are commonly understood. Here, we describe on the electrons movement in superconductor.





1)      To describe the characteristic of superconductors at low temperature.

2)      To describe the characteristic of ceramic superconductor.







Many materials acts as superconductor at very low temperature; nearly zero Kelvin temperature. Materials at superconductor stage produce magnetic field. This is because superconductor materials are originally a magnetic dipole. At elevated temperature, the atom is vibrating violently. They are unable to arrange in correct alignment. But at very low temperature, the kinetic energy of atoms is low. Each magnetic dipole is able to arrange in order to form a big magnet. The pictorial description is shown in Figure MJ.1.1 below.




Figure MJ.1.1



Figure MJ.1.2 shows the external magnetic field which produced by a superconductor at low temperature. An object is placed above the superconductor. The object is floating in the magnetic field.




Figure MJ.1.2







Ceramic is categorized as non-conductive materials. This is because the electrons are bond firmly in a confined space and unable to release from the orbit. Ceramic has nicely arranged crystal structure. Recently, few ceramic materials are able to perform superconductor characteristic at elevated temperature. As described in the chemical reaction with regards to the bonding phenomenon, it is explained here that the ceramic atoms are well structurally arranged, in such a way that the combined electron orbital produce near straight lines.


Figure MJ.2.1 shows an example of a suggested structure of ceramic superconductor materials. The superposed magnetic gauss line or orbital of electrons at certain temperature are continuous and well oriented. These superposed of orbital may not be necessary from the magnetic gauss line nearer to the atom, but can be the weaker magnetic gauss line that further from the atoms, just like the electrons cloud on a metal surface.



Figure MJ.2.1


At superconducting temperature, when electric potential is exerted between two ends, electrons are able to travels on the superposed orbital from one end to another end without obstruction or collision. The orbital shall be continuous where electrons do not jump from one gauss line to another gauss line and release photons energy. The emitted photons are considered as resistance to the conductivity.


However, at higher temperature, the paths are broken due to the vibration of atoms. And hence, the electrical conductivity reduced. Due to this reason, ceramic was categorized as electrically non-conductive materials.







At low temperature, atomic magnetic dipoles are able to align nicely and produces strong magnetic field. At elevated temperature, vibrating atomic magnetic dipoles reduce the magnetism.


Ceramic can achieve superconductivity characteristic at elevated temperature due to the superposed magnetic gauss line of nicely arranged atoms structure. Electrons are able to travel through these paths from one end to another end when electric potential is exerted. The superposed path line may be destroyed at temperature higher than superconducting temperature due to atomic vibrations.





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updated on 4-Jan-2009.

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