PHYSICS

Mass

UNIVERSE

UA. Kong Gravitational Force UB. Sun UC. Earth
UE. Black Hole UF. Life of Universe UG. Properties of Universe UH. Kong Matter and Kong Energy

UC. EARTH

1. Construction of Earth 2. Formation of Earth 3. Magnetic and Electric Fields of Earth 4. Activities and Phenomena on Earth

INTRODUCTION

The Earth is the place where we are standing. In this chapter, we will not touch in deep on the common understanding of the Earth. We will discuss something which are not commonly known and something that differs from the conventional explanations about the Earth.

OBJECTIVES

1)      To brief on the structure of the Earth.

2)      To describe the magnetic and electric field of the Earth.

3)      To describe the attraction force of the Earth.

4)      To give some alternative explanations on the natural activities and phenomenon happened on the Earth.

## UC.1.0        CONSTRUCTION OF EARTH

The Earth can be divided into two parts. There are the structure and the atmosphere of Earth. The structure covers the land on our feet and below. The atmosphere is the air surrounding us and above. These two portions of the Earth are shown in figure UC.1.1.

Figure UC.1.1

UC.1.1        Construction of Earth

From chapter ‘Life of Universe’, it is described that mass with high mass number is generated during the earlier stage of the big bang and mass with low mass number is generated during the later stage of the big bang. When time goes by, mass at higher mass number becomes unstable and reactive and begin to decay to lower mass number.

The same process happens to the Earth. Mass with high mass number is located at the inner core of the Earth. The later mass formed on the outer later is at lower mass number. The lightest mass becomes the atmosphere of the Earth.

When time goes by, the nuclear fission and radioactive processes take place, heat up and build up the internal pressure in the Earth. The crust exposes to the space at low temperature, the cooling effect solidifies the molten substances; therefore the crust is at solid stage. The temperature and pressure is built up in the inner layer and became the molten mantle. The mantle layer is formed by the bi-products of nuclear fission and radioactive decay processes, which are at lower mass number and density. The molten mantle is poured to the surface of the Earth through opening on crust layer such as volcano. The core of the Earth is continuously generating energy to heat up the upper layers.

As described in chapter “Nuclear Physics”, the nuclear fission and radioactive decay reactions cause the Earth to be positively charged and in thirst of electrons. The charges are distributed on the surface of the Earth or the crust. When the Earth rotates, the current flow will build up the magnetic field of the Earth.

The atmosphere of the Earth is mainly gases. Heavier gases accumulate near the surface of the curst and lighter gases rise to higher level. The convection effect of gases is due to the difference in temperature between lower level and upper level of the atmosphere. The solar heat is absorbed on the surface of the crust and then it heats up the air at the layer touching the crust. The hot air rises up and replace by cool air from higher layer. The convection of gases becomes wind causes the air circulation and mixes up all the gases in the atmosphere.

UC.1.2        Structure of Earth

The Earth is not a sphere. It is approximately an ellipsoid, flattened at the pole and bulging at the equator. The equator radius is greater then its polar radius. This is due to the angular rotation effect of the Earth.

The structure of the Earth is made up by 5 layers, namely the inner core, outer core, mantle, upper mantle and crust. The temperature of the Earth is increasing towards to the center of inner core. The core of the Earth contains mass with higher mass number which undergoes fission process; generates energy and heats up the core of the earth.

The mantle is in liquid stage and mainly is the molten substances due to high temperature and pressure. The inner layer of the mantle is hotter than the upper mantle. Convection happened on the molten substances where the hotter substances rise to higher level and the cooler substances fall to inner layer. The movement of mantle layer causes the crust layer to move, which is the Earthquake.

The crust is the outermost layer of the Earth. The crust is in solid stage at low temperature and pressure. The land and sea are the two basic things on the surface of the crust. All the living creatures are living on the crust, including floras and faunas. The surface of the crust is touching with the atmosphere. The uneven surface of the crust is caused by the movement of the crust layer. The crust is moveable because the crust is floating on the liquid mantle.

UC.1.3        Atmosphere of Earth

As shown in figure UC.1.1, the atmosphere of Earth is made up of 5 major layers. There are the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere and exosphere.

The troposphere contains various type of gases which required by the living creatures on the Earth. All the gas molecules are dielectric. They can be temporally or permanently electric dipole. The gas molecules are pulled to the Earth due to the electrostatic force exerts from the surface of the Earth. The concentration and the density of air reduce when the distance increases from the crust.

The thermosphere and exosphere are categorized under ionosphere. Ionosphere contains ionic substances caused by the high ionization effect of high energy photon and ionic particles from the outer space. It plays an important role in atmospheric electricity and forms the magnetosphere of the Earth. This layer is able to filter the harmful particles and photons from reaching the Earth, protecting the living creatures on the Earth. The harmful substances such as UV-ray and X-ray from outer space are energetic and possess high ionization effect which can cause damage to the living creatures on the Earth.

UC.2.0        FORMATION OF EARTH

Earth is one of the planets in the Solar system. From the above explanations on the Earth’s structure, from the core until the atmosphere, every layer is well distributed and lively. The harmony of the distribution makes the Earth a suitable place for life.

From the chapter “Life of Universe”, it describes that mass is created since the Big Bang. Mass at higher mass number is created during earlier stage of the Big Bang and mass at lower mass number is created during the later stage of the Big Bang.

The Earth is formed and grows for a long period after the Big Bang. When the mass is created in the Universe, the substances are scattered around and apart from each other. When atoms collide at correct temperature and orientation, chemical reactions happen by bonding atoms together. When more globules are colliding together, the globule grows to become object.

When an object is formed by heavier atoms, when time prolong after certain period, naturally, the heavier atom begins to decay or undergo nuclear fission to disintegrate into smaller piece of elements, energy is released.

From the chapter “Nuclear Physics”, it describes that the disintegration of mass produces elements with positive charge. The elements then collide with another substance in a cloud of substances. The electrostatic force of the charged elements then begins to attract and gather more substances. The globule begins to grow.

The positive charged object then attracts and collides with other object to form bigger object. The bigger object continues to grow by accreting surrounding atoms to become planet in size. The heavy atoms become the core of planet. Bigger planet is formed at earlier stage due to higher mass concentration. Due to the mass concentration distribution, heavier mass accumulate at the inner part of the planet and lighter mass at the surface. Mass at lower mass number continues to stick on the globule, the gases elements stick to the ball and forms the atmosphere; the Earth is born.

There is possibility that heavier object is attracted at the later stage of planet formation, where some heavy atoms are found on the surface of planet.

At the same time, the nuclear fission and radioactive decay reactions continue, generating heat and pressure in the core of the Earth. The products of nuclear fission, which at lower mass number, are brought to the mantle layer through convection and brought to the surface through volcanic process.

The activities happen on the Earth during that time might be different depends on the environment. The layer of atmosphere may be thinner or icing due to colder surrounding. There is no life when the Earth is born.

UC.3.0        MAGNETIC AND ELECTRIC FIELDS OF EARTH

In chapter ‘Kong Gravitational Force’, it is described that the actual forces that govern the gravitational force are the magnetic and electric (M&E) forces. The earth is pulled by the electromagnetic force of the Sun and the Earth circulates around the Sun.

The Earth is both the dielectric and conductor. When it is induced by the external electric field, the charges will be distributed in such a way that to reduce the potential of the electric field exerts on it.

Figure UC.3.1 shows the charge distribution between the Sun and the Earth. ‘E’ is the electric field, ‘Fe’ is the electrostatic force and ‘M’ is the magnetic moment.

Figure UC.3.1

The negatively charged Sun induces the charge separation on the Earth. The outer layer of the Earth is induced to become positive charge and the inner of the Earth becomes negative charge. The magnetic moment of the Earth is tilted with the rotation axis of the Earth. It is because the rotation of the Earth to the Sun is inclined.

The charge separation and distribution is illustrated in figure UC.3.2. The positive charges are distributed on the surface of the Earth, while the negative charges are contained in the inner part of the Earth.

Figure UC.3.2

The M&E field of the Earth is illustrated in figure UC.3.3. The M&E field of the Earth is produced by the different charge distribution on the Earth.

Figure UC.3.3

UC.3.1        Electric Field

The electric field of the Earth is illustrated in figure UC.3.4. ‘E’ is the electric field.

The positive charge on the surface of the Earth produces the outward electric field on the surface of the Earth. All negative charge electrons will be attracted and pulled by this electric force.

Due to this reason, the Earth is always in the thirst of electrons. The Earth is the common earthing for all electric appliances. The lightning always strikes down to the Earth but not up to the sky because of the electric field created by the positive charge surface of the Earth.

When a charged object is more positive than the charge of the Earth, the object will be electrically neutralized by giving out electrons from the Earth and vice versa. The Earth only attracts and absorbs negative charges but not positive charges. If the Earth possesses strong gravitational force, it shall be able to attract and absorb both negative charged electrons and positive charged protons.

Figure UC.3.4

UC.3.2        Magnetic Field

The movement of the charges produces the magnetic field of the Earth. The mantle is in liquid phase and the crust is in solid phase. The difference of angular velocity between the mantle and the crust causes a net current flow. The net current flow produces the magnetic field of the Earth. If the mantle is rotating faster than the crust, the net current flow is in clockwise direction from the top. The magnetic field produced is outward from the bottom and inward to the top. The Earth’s magnetic field is illustrated in figure UC.2.5. ‘B’ is the magnetic field; ‘M’ is the magnetic moment.

Figure UC.3.5

The tilted magnetic field and magnetic moment to the rotation axis is caused by the non-uniform charges distribution. It is because the rotation of the Earth to the Sun is inclined.

If the mantle is rotating slower than the crust, the net current produced is anticlockwise. The magnetic field produced will be reversed.

If the mantle is rotating at the same speed as the crust, there is no net current produced. The magnetic field will not be produced.

If the Earth is not a charged body, it will not possess such a strong magnetic field and protect us from the solar wind.

The magnetic moment of the Earth is parallel to the magnetic field of the Sun due to the magnetic force exerts to the Earth. Therefore, the equator of the Earth is facing the Sun, but not the North or South Poles of the Earth.

UC.4.0        ACTIVITIES AND PHENOMENA ON EARTH

UC.3.1        Energy On Earth

Generally, there are two main sources of thermonuclear energy on the Earth. There are the solar energy from the thermonuclear fusion of the Sun and the thermal energy from the thermonuclear fission of the Earth. These two energy sources are generating heat and supporting all the activities on the Earth.

The solar energy is required for the photosynthesis of the floras, generating electricity from solar cell, generating heat and creating wind for wind power generation, creating rain and producing hydrostatic power generation. The thermal energy is used for geothermal power generation.

UC.3.2        Attraction Force Of Earth

The attraction force on the Earth is due to the electrostatic force from the Earth surface to the object surrounding the Earth. The objects on the Earth are either dielectrics or conductors. Both are able to form temporally or permanently electric dipole. The electric field of the Earth creates an electrostatic force to pull the objects fall onto the Earth. The electrostatic force to a neutral object is always in one direction. The higher the density of charges on the Earth, the higher the attraction force of the Earth.

The electric field of the Earth tends to pull the negative charges into the Earth, which causes the lightning to strike to the Earth. A lightning conductor which is at lower electric resistance and has same charge density as the Earth is able to attract lightning due to the concentrated electric field produced at the tip of the lightning conductor.

UC.3.3        Sun Rays To Earth

The atmosphere of the Earth is divided into few layers. From the outer layer to the inner layer, the density is increasing. The atmosphere is transparent to the sun rays. From the chapter ‘Behaviors Of Photon’, it is described that the density of the objects is depending on the pattern of the M&E field of the object. When the density is higher, the pattern of M&E field is less perpendicular and the refraction index is higher. This phenomenon is caused by the superposition of the M&E field of the surrounding objects. The refraction index causes the reduction of the Kong vector or the velocity of the photons. Therefore, the photons are bent when entering into the atmosphere of the Earth. This effect is not caused by the gravitational force. Photon is mass-less; the Newtonian gravitational force is not able to attract mass-less objects. It is the effect on the Kong vector that produces the bending of the sun rays when entering into the Earth.

When the sun rays enter into the atmosphere, energy transfer happens. First energy transfer is at the ionosphere layer, where the UV-rays and X-rays from the Sun interacts and ionizes the gas molecules in the ionosphere. The energy transfer is based on the Compton Effect where the high energy photons knock away the electrons of the atoms or molecules and cause ionization effect. The reduced UV-rays and X-rays then become the low UV-range and violet visible range and continue to enter into the atmosphere of the Earth.

When the low UV-rays and violet rays enter into the stratosphere and the troposphere of the Earth, the second stage of energy transfer happen. The low UV-rays and violet rays lose energy when colliding with the gas molecules and vapor molecules in the atmosphere. The low UV-rays and violet visible rays then become lower frequencies, which are the yellow and red visible range.

If the atmosphere layer is thicker, more collisions and more energy are lost when the solar photons enter into the Earth’s atmosphere. The photons that reach the Earth surface have lower frequencies such as red visible or infra-red range.

Therefore, the sun is always looked yellow in color during clear sky day. When the atmosphere becomes thicker or hazy, the sun is looked red in color due to more energy losses of the solar photons.

The gas molecules absorb the energy from the solar photons. The transition of electrons in gas and vapor molecules from higher energy level to lower energy level release photons in blue visible range. Therefore, the sky is always looked blue in color.

When the sun-rays are diffracted by the rain droplets, it produces the rainbow in the sky. It is always difficult to observe the violet color of the rainbow. When the solar photons pass through stratosphere and enter into troposphere, most of the high frequencies photons were reduced to the low frequencies. Therefore, the violet color photon is minimal, leaving blue color photon and below.

DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS

The Earth is constructed layer by layer after the big bang. The higher mass number substances are located in the inner part of the Earth and the lighter mass number substances are located at the outer part of the Earth.

The atmosphere of the Earth is divided into 5 major layers depends on the density of the layers. The structure of the Earth is divided into 5 major layers depends on the density of the layer.

The 2 major sources of energy on the Earth are the thermonuclear fission and fusion energy. The thermonuclear fission produces internal energy to the Earth while the thermonuclear fusion of Sun contributes to the external energy to Earth. If the earth is not circulating around the Sun, only the thermonuclear fission reactions contribute the energy to Earth.

When times goes by, the higher mass number substances undergoes thermonuclear fission reaction and produces heat and bi-products substances to the Earth. The heat generated heats up the mantle of the Earth. The bi-products are brought to the upper mantle layer by convection effect. The bi-products were then brought to the Earth surface through volcanoes.

The nuclear fission reactions and radioactive decay produce elements at positive charge. The charges are accumulated and distributed on the surface of the Earth. When the Earth rotates, the current flow generates the magnetic field of Earth. Beside this, the electric induction by the negatively charged Sun produces charge separation on the Earth. The surface of the Earth is positive and negative in the inner part of the Earth. The positive charge on the surface causes the Earth is in thirst of electrons. Therefore, the lightning is always strikes on the Earth.

The angular movement of the charges produces the current on the Earth. The net current flow is produced due to the difference in angular velocity between the outer and inner layers of the Earth. The net current flow produces the strong magnetic field of the Earth.

The objects on the surface of Earth are attracted by the electrostatic force of the Earth. The strength of the attraction force depends on the density of the charges on the Earth. The higher density of charges on the Earth, produces higher attraction forces on the Earth. The attraction force of the Earth may vary due to the density of charges. The induced density of charges of the Earth may vary due to the charge density of the Sun.

The atmosphere layers are transparent to the solar photons. The different density of the atmosphere layers produces different pattern of the M&E field. Different pattern of the M&E field produces different refraction index of the layers. Different refraction index produces the differences in Kong vector and causes bending of the photons.

The photons lose energy when collide with particles in the atmosphere. The photons lose energy by reducing the frequencies. When the solar photons at high frequencies enter into the atmosphere, the energy and the frequencies are reduced. The energy is absorbed and transferred to the gas and vapor particles in the atmosphere. When the solar photons reach to the surface of the Earth, the solar photons reduce to yellow in color and sometimes red in color when the atmosphere is thicker or hazy. The gas and vapor particles who absorbed the solar photon energy, release the energy in blue visible range. Therefore, the sky is looked blue in color.

This website is originated on 15-Mar-2007,

updated on 4-Jan-2009.