|UA. Kong Gravitational Force||UB. Sun||UC. Earth|
|UE. Black Hole||UF. Life of Universe||UG. Properties of Universe||UH. Kong Matter and Kong Energy|
|1. Formation and Operation of Stars||2. Sun||3. Center of Rotation||4. Ending of Stars|
The Sun is one of the stars that appears in the Universe. The Sun produces energy and it is the main source of energy that governing the activities on the Earth. In this chapter, we will discuss about the Sun and stars, on the formation, operation, ending and remnant of stars.
1) To describe the structure, attraction force and some properties of stars in the Universe.
2) To describe the formation and operation of star.
3) To describe the solar system.
4) To describe the ending and remnant of the stars.
UB.1.0 FORMATION AND OPERATION OF STARS
As everyone knows, stars give out energy and light up the whole universe. The fuels of the star are hydrogen and helium, and these two substances cover 74% of the mass in the universe, this will be discussed more in chapter “Life of The Universe”. Hydrogen and helium are formed during later stage of Big Bang and the quantity produced is large. When mass is formed, the substances are apart from each other, moving away from each other and very rarely are attracted to each other.
UB.1.1 Formation of Star
When a large volume of hydrogen cloud is formed in certain location of the Universe, they are scattering around. The reaction happens when collision of Hydrogen atom is activated. One example of the activations is such as when the hydrogen cloud is hit by the shockwaves from a supernova. Millions of particles from the shockwaves collide with millions hydrogen atoms in the hydrogen cloud and trigger the collision between hydrogen atoms. When the orientation of collision is correct, thermonuclear fusion reaction then begins.
UB.1.2 Operation of Star
It is predicted there are two types of reactions in the star that produce energy. First reaction is the thermonuclear fusion reaction, second is the collision of particles.
UB.1.2.1 Thermonuclear Fusion
From chapter “Nuclear Physics”, we understand that all stars undergo thermonuclear fusion reaction by giving out tremendous energy to the universe. The thermonuclear fusion reaction is shown by the equation below,
4 1H1 à 4He2 + 2 e- + 2 ph (Q = 26.73 MeV) … eq. UB.1.0
In eq. UB.1.0, there are few steps of reaction before reaching the formation of helium atom. Four numbers of Hydrogen atom forms an atom Helium by releasing 2 high energy photons and 2 high energy electrons.
Photons may escape from the star and travel in the speed of light, or the photons may ionize hydrogen atoms. The high energy electrons which are released from the reaction may collide with other hydrogen atoms and activate a chain reaction.
The thermonuclear fusion reactions continue to grow. Under high temperature condition, the atoms are ionized to plasma stage. The reactive atoms form the core of star which are positive charge and produce a magnetic field cage. Ions are trapped and circulating around the magnetic field of the fireball.
This phenomenon can be explained by a Cyclotron effect. This is achieved by ejecting an electron into a uniform magnetic field, which causes the electron to circulate within the magnetic field without escape. This effect also happen to the Earth, where electrons are trapped in a magnetic bottle by the Earth’s magnetic field, forming the Van Allen radiation bells, which loop well above the Earth’s atmosphere, between the Earth’s north and south geomagnetic poles.
When the fireball continues to grow, the hydrogen atoms or the protons decrease; the electrons are accumulated causes the increase of negative charges in the star. The star becomes highly negative charged and begins to attract and pull things from surrounding. Objects that are neutral or electric dipoles will be attracted by the star. The negatively charged fireball attracts the objects surrounding it through electromagnetic force.
Thermonuclear fusion reactions continue and the temperature of the star increases. The collisions of charged particles, between electrons to electrons and electrons to protons, produce electromagnetic wave in wide range of frequencies, which depending on the energy level or the temperature of the star. The Sun having surface temperature of around 6000 Kelvin produces electromagnetic waves at the peak of visible range. The produced electromagnetic waves travel through space and enter into the Earth, supporting the activities on the Earth.
UB.1.2.2 Collisions of Particles
The thermonuclear fusion reactions happen violently in the center of the Sun. The produced high energy electrons may collide with other particles such as hydrogen or helium atoms. The high energy collisions may destroy the structure of those particles and produce photons and positrons. The positrons then annihilate with electrons to produce gamma rays. Collision process is totally eliminating the mass of particles. The energy released from the collision process is higher than the thermonuclear fusion reactions.
The Sun comprises majority of hydrogen and helium atoms which are the fuels of thermonuclear fusion reaction. The Sun is not a solid object with clear defined boundary. It appears in a plasmatic state, which ions move and circulate within the magnetic cage. The sun can be divided into few zones which are the core, convection zone, photosphere and atmosphere.
The core of Sun is hotter than the outer surface. Energy is released from the surface through radiation. The major thermonuclear fusion reaction is happened at the core. The core is very positive charge. Under certain circumstance, due to high energy accumulated in the core of Sun, further stages of thermonuclear fusion reaction may happen in converting helium to carbon, oxygen or substances with higher mass number.
Due to temperature difference between the core and surface, convection happens in the Sun. The heat from the core is transferred upwards to the surface through convection.
The visible surface of the Sun is the photosphere. Sunlight is free to propagate into space. A layer after the photosphere is the atmosphere, which consists of chromosphere and corona. Faculae and flares arise in the chromosphere. Corona is the outer part of the Sun’s atmosphere. Any objects that attracted near to the Sun will be burned off when reaches the atmosphere of Sun.
UB.2.1 Magnetic and Electric Field
Similar to other stars, the Sun is in plasmatic state, the charges are circulating within the magnetic cage of the Sun at difference velocity and density distribution. Figure UB.2.1 illustrates the charges distribution and the magnetic field generated.
The velocity and density of charges flow at the Sun’s equator is higher and gradually reduce to both poles. The current flow is the highest at the equator; the magnetic field generated is highest at the equator and gradually reduces to the top and bottom. The equal-potential magnetic field is elongated and stretched far outwards at the equator.
This magnetic field generated is varying and depending on the activities of the charged particles in the Sun. It is the resultant of superposition between the positive charged core and the current produced by the revolving electrons. When the activities change, the magnetic field generated will be changed.
For the electric property, as the whole fireball is highly negative charged, the electric field is pointing towards the Sun from all directions.
As described in chapter “Kong Gravitational Force”, the electrostatic force is pulling all the objects surrounding the Sun, while the magnetic force is keeping the objects to circulate around the equator.
UB.3.0 CENTER OF ROTATION
When a star is formed, it becomes highly negative charge due to the highly accumulation of electrons in the star. It pulls the surrounding objects through electromagnetic force. As described in the chapter “Kong Gravitational Force”, the actual forces and keeping the planets revolving around the Sun is the electromagnetic force.
Due to this reason, a star is always the center of attraction and center of rotation for localized rotating system in the Universe. The centralized rotation of Universe is different from localized rotating system, which will be discussed in chapter “Kong Matter and Kong Energy”.
Stars are always the center of attraction of various objects in the space such as planets, asteroids, meteoroids, comets and dust. It is because stars are able to generate strong magnetic and electric (M&E) field. The objects that circulate around the stars are almost in planar shape, but not in spherical shape. If the attraction force is governed by the mass-dependent gravitational force, the shape of the solar system shall be spherical. It is the electromagnetic force that causes the system in planar shape.
A galaxy, such as the Milky Way galaxy, is one of the localized rotating systems in the Universe, which the rotation effect is caused by the creation of super-massive star during early stage of the Universe.
This star is one of the pioneer stars in the Universe, which becomes the center attraction of Milky Way. Stars created during early stage of Universe possess high density of hydrogen cloud. The accumulated charges are very high and able to attract objects that are far from it, which produces very huge rotating system.
UB.3.2 Solar System
Sun is one of the stars in the Universe and becomes the center of the Solar system. The Earth and other planets and matter such as comets orbit the Sun. Energy from the Sun, in the form of sunlight, support the life in the Earth and drive the climate and weather of the Earth.
The basic solar system consists of nine planets, namely Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, in the order of their distances from the Sun. Matters that pass through the attractive region of the Sun will be attracted and orbit surrounding the Sun. Objects that travel in higher than the escape velocity may by pass the attraction of the Sun. The travel direction of the objects may be changed due to the centrifugal force.
Planets that are surrounding the Sun in Solar System can be grouped into two major categories on their composition. They are terrestrials and gas giants. Planets with bodies largely composed of rock such as Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are categories under terrestrials. Planets with composition largely made up of gaseous material such as Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are categories under gas giants.
The planets also rotate around through their centers. The period of one complete rotation is known as a day. All the planets in the Solar System rotate in a counter-clockwise direction, except Venus in clockwise.
The period of one complete revolution of a planet’s orbit is one year. A planet’s year depends on its distance from its star. The orbit of the planet is not perfectly circular; the distance of each planet varies over the course of its year.
The planets are revolving the Sun in planar but with slight inclination to the Sun’s equator. Due to the magnetic field of the Sun, the planets tend to tilt the rotation axis in accordance to the magnetic moment.
UB.4.0 ENDING OF STARS
From chapter “Nuclear Physics”, in the thermonuclear fusion reaction, the hydrogen atoms undergo restructuring process to become helium, where the combination and restructuring of the M&E field of hydrogen atoms, produces helium atom.
All stars including the Sun are burning hydrogen and helium fuels. When the fuel is exhausted one day, the stars will die off. There are few possible endings of stars depending on the level of energy accumulated.
UB.4.1 Red Giant
When most of the hydrogen fuels are burned off to helium ashes, the star may expand to become a red giant. The helium rich ashes may continue to fuse to heavier elements at the core such as carbon and oxygen atoms.
When the thermonuclear fusion process decreases, the temperature of a star reduces, the ionization effect reduces. The magnetic field cage of the star becomes weak and breaks off slowly, the remaining fuels and the charged particles are released. The star expands to bigger volume. The remaining loose fuels continue to burn and radiate causes the star looked like a red giant.
The charged particles are emitted and expelled to outer space at very high speed. This phenomenon is named as planetary nebula.
UB.4.2 White Dwarf
When the Helium fuels of the red giant are burned off, the core of the red giant will slowly cool down and become a white dwarf. A white dwarf is very hot when it is formed. It will gradually release the remaining energy and causes the core to shrink.
The star was in plasmatic state previously. During the planetary nebula stage, the high internal pressure blasts away most of the electrons. The remaining ashes at the core are lacking of electrons. The ash on the surface that able to capture electrons becomes neutral; leaving the hot core which is still in thirst of electrons. The high electrostatic attraction force from the center of the core towards the surface creates a pressure on the surface and causes the white dwarf to collapse.
The heat from the core of white dwarf continues to radiate and it may takes very long period to cool down. The core of a white dwarf is mainly carbon or oxygen ashes, which may be slowly fused into iron ashes.
UB.4.3 Neutron Star
If a star contains higher amount of mass than a white dwarf, when it dies off, the accumulated energy is higher. The accumulated energy at the core of the star is high enough to fuse to the next stage of fusion reaction. The core undergoes runaway carbon fusion. Under the high pressure, the substances will undergo restructuring; the M&E fields of the carbon elements accrete, combine, restructure and fuse into iron ashes. The iron ashes core is positive charge. The remnant is named as neutron star.
During the planetary nebula stage, the internal build-up pressure of the star is moderate, leaving some of the lower energy electrons which are attracted by the neutron star. The neutron star is surrounded by electrons.
The M&E field of a neutron star is quite similar to an atom; the electrons live in the magnetic gauss line of the neutron star. The M&E field of the neutron star possesses different pattern like an atom, which produces phenomenon like gravitational lensing. This will be discussed more in chapter “Kong Matter and Kong Energy”.
UB.4.4 Black Hole
When a heavier star contains very high amount of mass, higher than a neutron star, when its fuels are exhausted, it is able to accumulate large amount of energy in the core. The star will then burn off to form a black hole. This will be discussed in another chapter on “Black Hole”.
DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
The Sun is one of the stars in the Universe. The Sun is mainly made up of hydrogen and helium atoms, which undergo thermonuclear fusion reaction in producing energy. During the fusion reaction, high energy photons and electrons are released as bi-product. The high energy photons are emitted into the space and the high energy electrons are trapped inside the magnetic field cage. The magnetic field cage is created by the charged particles within the Sun. The collisions of charged particles on the Sun’s surface produce wide range of electromagnetic radiation, at the peak of visible light, at temperature around 6000K.
Another energy source of the star is the collision of particles. Collisions of particles between high energy electrons and hydrogen or helium atoms may destroy the structure of the particles and produces high energy.
The tremendous amount of ‘excess’ electron in a star causes the star to be highly negative charged and produces elongated magnetic field. The elongated magnetic field at the equator of the star is due to the different in velocity and density distribution of charges. The negative charge exacts electrostatic force to the surrounding objects. These two electric and magnetic forces are governing the planets and objects in circulating around the star. The electrostatic force determines the velocity and distance of the object. The magnetic force keeps the object to orbit at the equator of the star.
Stars are always the center of attraction and center of rotation of the localized rotating system formed in the Universe such as galaxies and solar system.
The Sun is the center of attraction for the solar system. The Solar system consists of 9 planets which are revolving around the Sun.
When the fuels of a star exhausted, the star will become a red giant. The magnetic field cage of the star becomes weaker and breaks off slowly. The size of the star becomes bigger. The charged particles are expelled into the space under high internal pressure. This phenomenon is called planetary nebula.
Depending on the amount of fuels of a star, the star might die off to become white dwarf, neutron star or black hole. The core of white dwarf exacts an internal attraction to the outer surface causes the core to shrink and collapse. The heat from the core of white dwarf continues to radiate and takes long period to cool down.
When the accumulated energy of a red giant is high enough, the core of the star will undergo runaway carbon fusion. The star will fuse into iron ashes which is positive charge. Electrons are then attracted to circulate around the positive charged core and the remnant becomes a neutron star.
When the amount of fuels of a star is huge, higher than a neutron star, the star will end as a black hole.
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