PHYSICS

Fundamental of Physics

Mass

Wave and Photon

Universe

MASS

MA. Fundamental of Mass MB. Kong Frequency and Kong Wavelength MC. Annihilation and Pair Production

MD. Kong Equation

ME. Kong Atom Model MF. Quantum of Atom MG. Perturbation of Photon

MH. Periodic Table

MI. Chemical Reaction MJ. Superconductor MK. Particles and Waves ML. Nuclear Physics

MK. PARTICLES AND WAVES

1. Rutherford's Experiment 2. G.P. Thomson's Experiment 3. Diffraction of Electrons

4. Interference of Electrons

5. Particles-Photons 6. Photons-Particles    

 

INTRODUCTION

 

As described in chapter "Fundamental of Mass", does moving electrons travel as wave? The answer is NO. As explained in chapter "Kong Wavelength and Kong Frequency", electron incident beam react as waves due to the kinetic energy of moving electrons. In this chapter, below are few examples and explanations on how the electrons incident beam does the magic similarly to wave.

 

On the subject of particles-photons, it discusses about the new discovered finer particles such as quarks, leptons, anti-particles and so on. It suggests the existence of such particles are caused by the rapid changing of magnetic and electric (M&E) fields.

 

 

OBJECTIVES

 

1) To explain the experiment result of Rutherford's and G.P. Thomson's experiments.

2) To explain, describe and illustrate the reasons and causes of electron incident beam in producing

    diffraction and interference effect.

3) To discuss on the existence of particles and the clue to the appearance of the Universe.

 

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MK.1.0        RUTHERFORD’S EXPERIMENT

 

According to Hall Effect and Faraday, any charge particles that passes through M&E field will be diverted. The experiment which was carried out by Rutherford shows very clearly the divergence of α-particles in a gold foil. Figure MK.1.1 suggests the divergence and reflection of α-particles.

 

 

Figure MK.1.1

 

As described in the "Kong atom Model", all particles are formed by the magnetic and electric (M&E) fields. An object is a structure formed by the superposition of the M&E fields of many small atoms. The gold foil structure is made up of many small gold atoms, the M&E field near to the atom is stronger and weaker far from the atom.

 

α-particles is big in size, when the α-particles enter into the gold foil atomic structure, they hits on different strength of the M&E field. If the α-particles hits on the strong M&E field and unable to penetrate through, it will be reflected. If the α-particles hits on the weak M&E field, it will penetrate through the gold foil. If the α-particles hits near to the atom, it will be diverted to certain angle. Some reflected α-particles are collected at the angle of 180°, some α-particles are detected behind the gold foil and some at any angle surrounding the target gold foil.

 

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MK.2.0        G.P. THOMSON’S EXPERIMENT

 

In 1927, George P. Thomson carried out an experiment to demonstrate a diffraction pattern characteristic of the atomic arrangements in a target of powdered aluminium. The experiment apparatus is illustrated in figure MK.2.1 below.

 

 

Figure MK.2.1

 

 

Figure MK.2.2

 

The electrons beam diffraction results shown in figure MK.2.2. The electrons incident beam hits onto the powder aluminium and produces few rings. The diffraction effect is illustrated in figure MK.2.3.

 

 

 

Figure MK.2.3

 

The G.P. Thomson’s experiment shows the diffraction of electrons incident beam at the atomic level. As described in the Kong atom model, all particles possess M&E field. When charged electrons enter into and hit on the aluminium atom, the magnetic gauss line will force, attract and guide the electrons to follow its track, the electric field will attract the electrons nearer to the atom. This phenomenon is similar to the cathode tube, where the electrons incident beam is diverted by the M&E field of the atom. The reaction of the electrons to the M&E field of atom is called the Kong Effect.

 

Electrons are then diverted according to the discrete gauss line. The electrons at different energy level hit on the different position of the different magnetic gauss line causes electrons to divert differently due to the different magnitude of magnetic field. The incident electrons possess much higher energy than the escape velocity; therefore electrons do not trap but leave the atom after diffracted. Some portion of the electrons may reflected when knock on the electrons of the atom.

 

The diffraction of electron beam shown by G.P. Thomson’s experiment is due to the strong M&E field of the atom as described in Kong Atom Model. The diffraction of particles and X-ray are the same, which are due to the M&E field of atom. Both particles and X-ray incident beam will be diffracted the same when penetrating the M&E field if both incident beams possess the same energy level as shown by the Kong Wavelength.

 

The electromagnetic wave or photons also react and diffract according to the M&E fields base on the Kong Vector. The photons travel and follow the pattern of the magnetic gauss line of the atom. The M&E field on the pinhole will guide the photons to follow its pattern and the photons will be refracted and diffracted. More descriptions on the diffraction of photons is described in the chapter "Behaviors of Photons".

 

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MK.3.0        DIFFRACTION OF ELECTRONS

 

When electrons pass through an opening either a pinhole or a slit, electrons will be diffracted. The diffraction of electrons is due to the strong M&E field at the edge of the obstruction. This diffraction happened at macroscopic level. Figure MK.3.1 illustrates the diffraction of electrons through a tiny opening. The diffraction of pinhole produces rings pattern and diffraction of slit produces fringes pattern.

 

 

Figure MK.3.1

 

When electrons pass through a small opening, the strong M&E field near the edge of the object affects the electron movement. The M&E field near the edge pulls and diverts the electrons nearer to the object. Electrons that penetrate through the middle of opening produce the center mark on the target, while diffracted electrons produce rings or fringes on the target. The electrons whose nearer to the object are diffracted wider due to stronger M&E field. The discrete diffraction pattern is due to the discrete magnetic gauss line on the edge as illustrated in figure MK.3.1.

 

 This phenomenon is similar to the cathode tube, where the electrons incident beam is diverted by the M&E field of the object. The reaction of the electrons to the M&E field is called the Kong Effect.

 

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MK.4.0        INTERFERENCE OF ELECTRONS

 

As described above, when electrons pass through tiny opening such as slit, electrons are diffracted and diffraction fringe is produced. When there are more than one slits, electrons that diffracted from few slits produce interference fringes. Electrons that fall on the same location on the target are named constructive interference.

 

Electrons cannot be vanished without proper process such as annihilation. Interference of electron is due to few diffractions of slits, but not the elimination of electrons. Annihilation process is impossible for the experiments of interference of electrons because the annihilation requires positrons. The acceleration of positrons is impossible in this case because of the polarity of the electric potential is dedicated for electrons. The positrons cannot be accelerated to the same target. The net charge of the system is not conserved if the electrons eliminate electrons. Therefore, the interference of electrons base on the wave model is not convincing. This again, proved that electrons do not travel as wave.

 

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MK.5.0        PARTICLES-PHOTONS

 

As described in the chapter “Kong Wavelength and Kong Wavelength”, particles and photons are two separate entities. Both are having the same ingredients and interchangeable from particles to photon or photon to particles as described in the “Annihilation and Pair Production”.

 

Particles that possess certain discrete quantum mechanics are stable in particle form, where the M&E fields are in the shape of atom. Photon is a discrete packet of energy and traveling at the speed of light, where the M&E fields are perpendicular to each others.

 

However, under certain circumstances, particles-photons do exist, in meta-stable condition. These particles-photons are in the mist of transformation between particles and photons. If a particle-photon is able to achieve certain discrete quantum number, it can become stable particle. On the hand, if it cannot, it will become photon.

 

Stable particles are such as proton, antiproton, electron and positron. Photons are such as gamma-ray. Particles-photons are such as Pions and Muons.

 

In the high energy particles collision process, when two particles are collided to each other, the M&E field of each particle is disturbed and destroyed. The rapidly change of the M&E field causes the transformation and restructuring of the M&E field. The restructuring of the M&E field induces and produces various kinds of particles-photons depending on the energy. If part of the transformed particle-photon is able to achieve certain discrete quantum mechanics, it will become particle. Otherwise, it will become photon within a short period.

 

More examples on the restructuring of M&E fields are discussed in the chapter "Nuclear Physics". The process of M&E field restructuring is the clue for the formation of mass, which will be discussed in the topic "Universe".

 

 

MK.5.1        Particles Collision

 

In the collision of accelerated protons onto an iridium rod, the protons bounce off the iridium atom. The collision destroys the M&E field of iridium atom and restructuring of the M&E field occurs. A range of particles-photons are induced and formed. One of the particles-photons is able to achieve certain quantum mechanics and form the antiproton which is stable in the form of particle. For the rest of the particles-photons, which are unable to achieve certain quantum mechanics and thus become photons.

 

When the antiproton hits on a proton, the annihilation process takes place. This process again, produces meta-stable particles-photons such as pions and muons. The pion is unable to achieve certain quantum mechanics and decays rapidly into mion with a mean life of 2.6x10-8s. Then, the mion is also unstable, decaying with a mean life of 2.2x10-6s into positron. Positron is able to achieve certain quantum mechanics and it is stable.

 

In this collision process, the destruction of the M&E field of iridium causes the M&E field to change rapidly; the rapidly change of the M&E field produces various kinds of particles-photons. Positrons are always produced as the final particles, but then annihilate with electrons to become gamma rays.

 

 

MK.5.2        Formation of Particles

 

The collision of particles causes the rapid change in the M&E fields of the particles. From the rapidly change process of the M&E fields, we observed that particles, particles-photons and photons are formed and produced.

 

Also from the chapter “Annihilation and Pair Production”, we observed that particles are produced from photons.

 

These two processes involve the transformation and restructuring of the M&E fields. Therefore, we can conclude that particles can be formed and produced when there is a rapid change of M&E fields. The formation of particles produces matter and anti-matter, however in nature; the matter is more than anti-matter. This will be discussed more detail on the topic “Universe”.

 

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MK.6.0        PHOTONS-PARTICLES

 

In the subject above on particles-photons, the meta-stable substances possess higher characteristic of particles. In this subject about photons-particles, these substances are also meta-stable substances and possess higher characteristic of photons. From the topic “Wave and Photon”, chapter “Energy of Photon”, under certain circumstances when the Kong Vector is deformed; part of the kinetic energy of photons is transformed into potential energy. The potential energy of photons is also the mass property of the photon. Therefore, under certain circumstances, the photons and particles are undergoing similar behaviors such as diffraction.

 

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DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSION

 

The Rutherford’s and G.P. Thomson's experiment shows the diffraction pattern of the electrons incident beam. The electrons incident beam performs the diffraction and interference due to the magnetic and electric field of the atoms and objects. The same effect applicable to the electromagnetic wave incident beam due to the same consequences and energy level as described in the chapter “Kong Wavelength and Kong Frequency”. The reaction of the electrons to the M&E field is called the Kong Effect.

 

Electrons do not travel as waves but react upon M&E field depending on the kinetic energy level which adheres to the special relativity principle. Electrons and electrons cannot be eliminated according to the annihilation process where the net charge of the system is conserved.

 

Under certain circumstances where the Kong Vector is deformed, part of the kinetic energy of the photons becomes potential energy, which the photons-particles show some characteristic of mass.

 

In the high energy collision between particles, the M&E fields of the collided particles are destroyed, the rapid change of the M&E fields induce the formation of other meta-stable particles-photons. If the particles-photons are able to achieve certain quantum mechanics, they will become stable particles. Otherwise, they will release to become photons and travel away from the process within a short period of time. Positrons are always produced as the final particles for collisions of atoms, but then the positrons annihilate with electrons to become gamma rays.

 

The formation of the particles from the rapid change of M&E fields gives a clue on the formation of the Universe. However in nature, the matter is more than anti-matter. This will be discussed more detail on the topic “Universe”.

 

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