PHYSICS

Fundamental of Physics

Mass

Wave and Photon

Universe

UNIVERSE

UA. Kong Gravitational Force UB. Sun UC. Earth

UD. Kong Extinction Theory

UE. Black Hole UF. Life of Universe UG. Properties of Universe UH. Kong Matter and Kong Energy

UF. LIFE OF UNIVERSE

1. Beginning of Universe 2. Formation of Mass 3. Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation 4. Rotation of Universe
5. Formation of Objects 6. Structure of Universe 7. Operation of Universe 8. Ending of Universe

 

INTRODUCTION

 

In this chapter, we will discuss about the life of Universe. The conceptual understanding is presented. This chapter is inter-related and the introduction to chapter “Properties of Universe” and “Kong Matter and Kong Energy”, where some detail explanations are presented.

 

We will look at the Big Bang in a different view and hypothesis. This chapter describes the process of Big Bang and the creation process of matters and object in the universe. We will discuss on the Big Bang, formation of mass, the operation, the structure and the ending of Universe.

 

 

OBJECTIVES

 

1)      To describe on the beginning of Universe.

2)      To describe on the mass formation process.

3)      To describe on the structure of Universe.

4)      To describe on the operation of Universe.

5)      To describe on the ending of Universe.

 

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UF.1.0        BEGINNING OF UNIVERSE

 

From the basic natural law of energy conservation, which energy cannot be vanished or destroyed, but it can be transferred from one form to another.

 

The universe is a reversible process; the beginning refers to the universe at reference time zero. In actual case, there is no beginning or ending of the universe. After ending, the universe is regenerated. The ending refers to the universe at the moment before reference time zero.

 

Nevertheless, it begins,

 

At the beginning where time is referred to zero, the Big Bang (BB) happens. This is due to the contraction of universe before time zero. The contraction of universe is the ending of universe which will be described in later. The regeneration happens at the speed of light, which the ending and beginning has no time delay.

 

Energy conservation is adhered during BB. BB is a transformation process from kinetic-time-energy to potential-time-energy. Before ending of the Universe, kinetic-time-energy refers to high energy photons, which are gamma rays.

 

The rapid contraction of Universe changes the gamma rays to electrons and positrons. This process is quite similar to the pair production where the kinetic-time-energy of photon is transferred to potential-time-energy of mass. This whole transformation happens at time zero where it happens at the speed of light.

 

At the moment right after time zero of BB, on the surface of BB, the size of BB is rapidly expanding, creating space as universe. The expanding velocity at time zero is the ultimate speed, which is the speed of light, in relation to the remaining photons during ending.

 

The space is filled with electrons and positrons, which contribute to the magnetic and electric (M&E) field of the Universe. The volumetric space is determined by the M&E field. The Gaussian surface that encloses the outermost M&E field, determines the volume of the space. The net electric charge and the magnetic field across the Gaussian surface is zero.

 

The positrons and electrons created have no reactive magnetic gauss line, which is required for chemical bonding.

 

When Universe is expanding, the radius of Universe is expanding, the magnetic field is decreasing. Referring to the Faraday’s law of induction, change in magnetic field produces electric field. By nature, for energy conservation, the substances in the space will react to resist this change. The reducing magnetic field in space is encouraging the magnetic field to grow on substances. For the balance of the magnetic field, either positrons or electrons will be selected to grow, and positrons are selected in this case as per the current observation. Electrons are remained in balancing the total electric charge of Universe where the net charge over the Gaussian surface is zero.

 

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UF.2.0        FORMATION OF MASS

 

At the beginning of BB, the change in magnetic field is greatest. Few positrons are gathered, agglomerated, lumped and restructured with the magnetic field. The mass created at this moment possesses highest atomic number and mass number. Part of the mass is contributed by electric component and part of the mass is contributed by magnetic component.

 

The process of mass formation continues. The formation of atoms must achieve certain quantum mechanics in order to be stable. The electrons then attracted by the atoms and form neutral atoms, the reactive M&E field of the atoms are the home for electrons.

 

As the mass formation process creates a force to resist the expansion, the expansion rate of Universe is decreasing. The lower expansion rate produces mass at lower atomic number and mass number. Atoms with lower mass number are then created.

 

The mass formed at earlier stage possesses higher mass number and atomic number and vice versa at later stage.

 

As the expansion rate is reducing, the period for the formation of mass at certain quantum mechanics is longer. Therefore, the quantity of mass at lower mass number created is more than the mass at higher mass number. The quantity of hydrogen atoms in the Universe is highest.

 

In this mass formation process, the anti-matters of electrons, which are the positrons, are restructured by the magnetic field to become atoms, while the electrons live in the magnetic gauss line of the atoms. This condition causes the matters is more than the anti-matters.

 

The created atoms possess multiple reactive magnetic gauss line, which is different from positrons and electrons. The reactive magnetic gauss line is important for chemical bonding among atoms. Positrons and electrons do not possess reactive gauss line and they are unable to perform chemical reaction, but only live in the magnetic gauss line.

 

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UF.3.0        COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND RADIATION

 

At the end of mass formation process where after the creation of hydrogen atoms, the change in magnetic field is not strong enough and unable to produce atoms at certain quantum number; no more mass can be created. The remaining positrons and electrons then undergo annihilation process, producing gamma rays. The remaining potential-time-energy is converted back to kinetic-time-energy. The whole universe is covered with gamma rays.

 

The gamma rays are then interacting with the electrons in atoms and ionizing the atoms. The energy of gamma rays is transferred to electrons, which the frequency of gamma rays reduces.

 

When the Universe expands, the temperature reduces. Some of the energetic electrons are attracted by positive atom and release back the energy in electromagnetic wave at lower frequencies. Some of the high energetic electrons with high escape energy may circulate around the magnetic field of Universe.

 

When the expansion continues, the Universe is cooling down; the energy interaction between electrons and cosmic rays is balancing. The process continues until today, the space is filled with cosmic microwave background radiation. Figure UF.3.1 illustrate the cosmic microwave background radiation.

 

 

Figure UF.3.1

 

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UF.4.0        ROTATION OF UNIVERSE

 

During the mass formation process, matters are moving further away from the center of Universe in relative coordinates. After the last hydrogen atom is created, the change in magnetic field continues to affect the operation of Universe.

 

According to Faraday’s law of induction, the changing magnetic field induces an electric field throughout the Universe. The reduction of magnetic field induces a circular electric field; the ionized atoms are reacting to the electric field and begin to rotate in the Universe.

 

As the magnetic field is reducing when Universe expands, the circular electric field is induced all the time. This electric field creates a force to increase the angular velocity of matters. The rotation of Universe is accelerating while expanding in radial direction. The expansion of the Universe will be discussed in more detail in chapter “Kong Matter and Kong Energy”.

 

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UF.5.0        FORMATION OF OBJECTS

 

As the Universe is expanding, the distance between mass is apart, the space between the mass is increasing. The heavier mass is formed earlier and lighter mass is formed surrounding the heavier mass. The distribution of mass is scattered around uniformly in the space.

 

When atoms collide at correct temperature and orientation, chemical reactions happen by bonding atoms together. When more globules are colliding together, the globule grows to become object.

 

 

UF.5.1        Formation of Planets

 

When an object is formed by heavier atoms, when time prolong after certain period, naturally, the heavier atom begins to decay or undergo nuclear fission, energy is released and the object become positive charged.

 

The positive charged object then attracts and collides with other object to form bigger object. The bigger object continues to grow by accreting surrounding atoms to become planet in size. The heavy atoms become the core of planet. Bigger planet is formed at earlier stage due to higher mass concentration. Due to the mass concentration distribution, heavier mass accumulate at the inner part of the planet and lighter mass at the surface.

 

There is possibility that heavier object is attracted at the later stage of planet formation, where some heavy atoms are found on the surface of planet.

 

When nuclear fission process continues at the core of planet, charge of a planet accumulates and becomes more positive. The planet then able to attracts lighter atoms to form the atmosphere.

 

The same process happens simultaneously at different place in the Universe. The size of objects depends on the time of forming and the amount of atoms available surrounding.

 

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UF.6.0        STRUCTURE OF UNIVERSE

 

The Universe contains stars, planets, asteroids, meteoroids, comets and dust. The mass is scattered around the space and rotating in the Universe. During BB, the Universe is sphere in shape; while in the process of expansion, the Universe grows radially to ellipse and almost flat like a disk until today. This is due to the electromagnetic force that governing the activities in the Universe.

 

From the chapter “Kong Gravitational Force”, it explains that,

 

“If the Universe is governed by the mass-dependent gravitational force, the Universe shall expand in spherical shape instead of planar, as the mass-dependent gravitational force has no preference in attracting matters from any directions, but electromagnetic force does.”

 

However, matters in Universe are only few percentage of the volume of Universe. Another important structure of Universe is the M&E field. M&E field fully filled up the whole space of Universe.

 

M&E field forms a mesh for Universe. When Universe expands, the M&E field is also expanding and stretching horizontally. As M&E field is the ingredients of mass, the mesh of M&E field constitutes to the ‘Kong matter’ of Universe.

 

 

UF.6.1        Boundary of Universe

 

From figure UF.3.1, there is a boundary of Universe. The boundary of Universe is the Gaussian surface that encloses the Universe. The lowest quantum of magnetic field or the highest energy level forms the boundary of Universe.

 

All activities happen in the Universe are within this boundary, including electromagnetic wave.

 

 

UF.6.2        Mesh of Universe

 

Mesh of M&E field is the Kong matter of Universe. From chapter “Fundamental of Wave”, it described that electromagnetic wave requires a virtual medium to travel, which is the M&E field mesh of Universe. Electromagnetic wave is able to travel to and fro within the boundary of Universe through the mesh.

 

Generally, the mesh of Universe is uniform throughout the empty space except at areas near to any matters. At general space in Universe, the M&E field mesh is perpendicular to each other, causing electromagnetic wave travels in the speed of light. While at areas near to any matters or objects, the M&E field is non-perpendicular. As described in chapter “Behaviors of Photons”, the velocity of light will be slowed down and change direction when traveling in non-perpendicular M&E field. Therefore, at certain area in the space, the light is observed to be bent due to existence of matters.

 

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UF.7.0        OPERATION OF UNIVERSE

 

Matters are rotating around the center of Universe. At certain time, when the first star is created, the motion of the objects is changed at localized area.

 

From chapter “Sun”, it described that stars are highly negative charged. Stars then become the center of rotation at localized area in space. The formation of star exacts a centrifugal force to the object surrounding it and causes the objects to circulate around it.

 

When star grows, more and more objects are attracted and the size of rotation increases. It becomes a system like solar system. When numbers of solar systems circulate a heavier and bigger star, it becomes a galaxy, such as the Milky Way galaxy. When more and more stars are formed, more and more galaxies are created.

 

Stars formed in earlier stage of Universe are bigger due to higher concentration of hydrogen and helium atoms. Thus, the attraction force of bigger star is stronger and forms a bigger galaxy. While those stars formed in later stage of Universe is smaller in size and exact smaller localized rotation within the galaxy, such as solar system.

 

 

UF.7.1        Stars Moving Away

 

As all stars undergo thermonuclear fusion reaction, they possess the same characteristic. They all are negatively charged fireball. Negative charged stars exact repulsive force to each other and move away in acceleration. As the space is increasing, some stars die and some birth, existing stars are moving around, finding a comfortable space for themselves.

 

 

UF.7.2        Reduction of Mass

 

When time prolongs, mass is releasing the potential-time-energy and return the kinetic-time-energy to the Universe through radioactive decay, nuclear fission and thermonuclear fusion reactions. Mass is transformed to photons and slowly burned into iron ashes.

 

 

UF.7.3        Forming of Black Holes

 

When a heavy star dies, it becomes black hole. Black hole is a positively charged object, which attract objects or electric dipoles. Most of the massive black holes are formed in earlier stage of Universe when bigger star dies, as stars formed at earlier stage is bigger due to higher concentration of hydrogen atoms.

 

The detail of black hole is presented in chapter “Black Hole”.

 

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UF.8.0        ENDING OF UNIVERSE

 

As the Universe is expanding, M&E field in the Universe becomes weaker and weaker. The reduction on magnetic field induces a circular electric field and causes matters to rotate faster.

 

When most of the matters are fused into iron ashes, the strength of the magnetic field within the Universe becomes very weak. The outermost of the magnetic quantum is collapsing; the expansion is decelerating until it stops and contraction begins.

 

When mass keeps on reducing, the magnetic field becomes weaker and weaker, the change in magnetic field induces a circular electric field to accelerate the angular velocity. The angular velocity is accelerating and the contraction is also accelerating from zero velocity.

 

The contraction process increases the temperature of Universe. The remaining matters are burned. All the matters are fused into iron ashes. Interaction of electrons and electromagnetic wave increases the kinetic energy of electrons. The high energy electrons collide and destroy the M&E structure of remaining matters and iron ashes. The collision produces photons and positrons.

 

Positrons then annihilate with electrons and produce gamma rays. The potential-time-energy of matters is fully converted to kinetic-time-energy of gamma rays. The space is vanished and become volumetric-less, it contracts to point. This process is instantaneous as it happens at the speed of light.

 

The Universe is revived.

 

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DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS

 

The life of Universe is a reversible process. The ending is the beginning of Universe and it happens at the speed of light.

 

The Universe adheres to the principle of energy conservation and Faraday’s Law of Induction. Kinetic-time-energy refers to electromagnetic wave and potential-time-energy refers to mass.

 

At the Big Bang, the entire kinetic-time-energy is transferred to potential-time-energy. This process has no time reference as it happens at the speed of light.

 

Right after the big bang, the expansion of Universe begins. The Universe is filled with electrons and positrons. The charged particles produce magnetic and electric (M&E) field. The volume or the space of Universe is determined by this M&E field.

 

While the Universe is expanding, change in magnetic field produces atoms. The size of atoms is depending on the strength of magnetic field. Heavier mass is created at earlier stage of BB and lighter mass is created at later stage of BB. The remaining positrons and electrons undergo annihilation, producing the cosmic microwave background radiation.

 

In the planets formation process, heavier mass becomes the core of planets and lighter mass forms the atmosphere of planets.

 

The rotation of matters in the Universe is caused by the induced circular electric field. The electric field is induced by the changing magnetic field in accordance to the Faraday’s law of induction.

 

The universe is expanding in radial direction and becoming a disk due to the characteristic of electromagnetic force. The magnetic force causes the orbiting objects to fall on the equator.

 

The boundary of Universe is the lowest magnetic quantum gauss line or the highest energy level quantum.

 

The M&E field of charges and objects forms a mesh in the space within the boundary of Universe. The mesh constitutes to the Kong matter. The mesh enables electromagnetic waves to travel in the Universe. The non-perpendicular mesh causes the diffraction of electromagnetic wave.

 

The Universe contains stars, planets, asteroids, meteors and dusts. Stars form the localized rotating solar systems and galaxies in the Universe. The negative charged stars exact a repulsive force to each other, causing the stars move away in acceleration.

 

Mass undergoes decay, fission and fusion reactions by releasing the potential-time-energy to kinetic-time-energy. Black hole is formed when a heavy star dies. Electrostatic force of black hole pulls the electric dipoles nearer and circulates around it.

 

Reduction of mass decreases the volumetric size of Universe. The expansion of Universe stops and it contracts in acceleration. The angular velocity increases, the radial contraction accelerates from zero to the speed of light at the ending of Universe.

 

The contraction of Universe increases the temperature. All matters are fused into iron ashes. The collision of high energy electrons destroys the structure of M&E field of iron ashes and produces photons and positrons. Positrons then annihilate with the remaining electrons and produce gamma rays. The entire potential-time-energy is converted to kinetic-time-energy. The Universe contracts into a point and revive to a new Universe.

 

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