PHYSICS

Fundamental of Physics

Mass

Wave and Photon

Universe

UNIVERSE

UA. Kong Gravitational Force UB. Sun UC. Earth

UD. Kong Extinction Theory

UE. Black Hole UF. Life of Universe UG. Properties of Universe UH. Kong Matter and Kong Energy

UE. BLACK HOLE

1. Black Hole 2. Formation of Black Hole 3. Falling into Black Hole  

 

INTRODUCTION

 

From chapter Sun, a star might end up with few possibilities. If the fuels of a star is high enough where it accumulates large amount of energy in the core, the star will end as a black hole.

 

In this chapter, a conceptual understanding of black hole is presented. We will discuss on the structure, types and some features of black hole.  The formation of black hole will be discussed too.

 

 

OBJECTIVES

 

1)      To discuss on the structure, features and classifications of black hole.

2)      To discuss on the formation of black hole.

3)      To discuss some phenomena that related to black hole.

 

Top

 

 

UE.1.0        BLACK HOLE

 

Figure UE.1.1

 

Figure UE.1.2

 

It was described that a black hole is a region of space in which the attraction force is so powerful than nothing can escape its pull after having fallen past its event horizon, including the mass-less electromagnetic radiation.

 

A black hole, despite its invisible interior, can be detected by revealing its presence through the interaction with objects orbiting the event horizon or alternatively, the radiation emitted by burning gas that has been drawn into the black hole.

 

Figure UE.1.1 and UE.1.2 show two different views of a black hole. The effect of these photos are treated.

 

 

UE.1.1        Structure and Ingredient of Black Hole

 

Black hole is relating to a very massive substance appears in the Universe. From the topic Mass, an object with mass is related to the magnetic and electric (M&E) fields of the object. Without dispute, the ingredient of black hole is the strong M&E field. Also from the chapter Kong Gravitational Force, the attraction force that is governed by the black hole is the electromagnetic force in high strength.

 

The defining feature of the size of a black hole is the event horizon. Once an object crosses this horizon, it cannot return to the other side.

 

A black hole is quite similar to a huge giant atom. From the chapter Kong Atom Model, we know that an atom possesses M&E fields. The black hole also possesses M&E field at the same pattern, but in giant size. The event horizon of the black hole is corresponding to the furthest reactive magnetic gauss line of the giant atom. For an atom, the furthest reactive gauss line is the valence of the atom. Electrons live in the reactive gauss line of an atom; similarly, electrons are distributed and orbiting at high velocity within the event horizon of a black hole.

 

The core of black hole possesses is formed by iron ashes, which is very positive charge and possesses very strong M&E field. The M&E field gradually reduces from inside the event horizon to outside. The space between the core and the event horizon is the atmosphere of black hole. Any neutral object or electric dipole that comes near to the black hole will be attracted and accelerated to high velocity.

 

 

UE.1.2        Magnetic and Electric Field of Black Hole

 

From Figure UE.1.1 and UE.1.2, a black hole possesses such shape or pattern is due to the magnetic and electric (M&E) field of the black hole. The M&E field of black hole is represented in figure UE.1.3 and UE.1.4 below.

 

 

Figure UE.1.3

 

Figure UE.1.3 shows the M&E field of a black hole on side view. The core of a black hole possesses very strong M&E field. As described in the chapter "Kong Gravitational Force" on the characteristic of M&E forces, the strong electric force pulls every objects come near to it. The strong magnetic force keeps the attracted objects to be circulated at the equator of black hole. Figure UE.1.3 shows exactly the effect of Kong gravitational force of a black hole.

 

 

Figure UE.1.4

 

Figure UE.1.4 illustrates the M&E field of a black hole on top view. The attracted objects are circulating surround the core of a black hole. The region nearer to the core possesses stronger M&E field and gradually reduce towards outer region. The electric force. FE, pulls the objects into the core, while the magnetic force, FB, balances the pulling force. The attracted objects are moving at velocity, v, depending on the energy level of the objects. Objects that travel at velocity higher than the escape velocity, VE, will not be attracted by the black hole.

 

The electric field of the black hole is reducing when more objects are attracted. The black hole becomes neutral when it is saturated. The circulation principle of the objects in a black hole is similar to the Kong atom model.

 

 

UE.1.3        Classification of Black Hole

 

There are few types of black hole occurring in nature, which are commonly classified according to their size, determined by the radius of the event horizon. The classification is tabulated in table UE.1.0 below.

 

Class

Size

Super-massive black hole

~ 0.001 10AU

Intermediate-massive black hole

~ 1000 km

Stellar-mass black hole

~ 30 km

 

Table UE.1.0

 

Top

 

 

UE.2.0        FORMATION OF BLACK HOLE

 

Black holes are formed when a very massive star dies. From chapter Sun, we understand that a star undergoes thermonuclear reaction, where the hydrogen atoms are fused into helium ashes. If the star accumulated high energy level due to high amount of fuels or helium ashes, the core will continue to fuse into carbon or oxygen ashes. When the fuels of the star are exhausted and the accumulated energy is high enough, the remaining carbon ashes undergoes runaway carbon fusion, it will fuse into iron ashes. The core of black hole is the iron ashes, which are unable to undergo further fusion reaction.

 

From chapter Nuclear Physics, we understand that nuclear reactions only involve the restructuring of the M&E field of atoms. A star is a plasmatic globule, where super-active thermonuclear reactions happen in the core of the star. The electrons are not taking part in the reactions but as the bi-product. The core of star is highly ionized to positive charge and loose electrons are trapped and circulating within the magnetic cage. When a star dies, the magnetic cage collapses, the electrons are blasted away at high energy, leaving the core at highly positive charge.

 

If a star is massive enough, the accumulated internal pressure is high enough to ionize the core and to blast away all the circulating electrons, the star will form a black hole. As the core is highly positive charged, it produces a strong M&E field, which is quite similar to a huge giant atom. The M&E field gives the volumetric size of the black hole. Electrons are circulating around the magnetic gauss line of black hole and the event horizon is the furthest reactive magnetic gauss line.

 

Different size of star produces different type of black hole.

 

 

UE.2.1        Super-Massive Black Hole

 

A super-massive black hole is formed by a very super-massive star during the early stage of Universe. It is predicted the super-massive black holes are the pioneer of stars in the Universe. It is also predicted that these stars are the center of galaxy.

 

From chapter Life of Universe, we understand that the amount of hydrogen atoms formed during mass creation process is the highest. Also during early stage of Universe, the size of Universe is smaller, the hydrogen density is higher. Therefore, it is possible to form a super-massive star.

 

When a star is formed, it will become a localized attraction to the objects surrounding it. When a pioneer star is formed, the strong attraction force is able to attract huge amount of objects circulating around it. This forms the galaxy during the early stage of Universe.

 

When the super-massive star dies, it forms the super-massive black hole. The core of super-massive black hole is highly positive charged. The strong electromagnetic force of the super-massive black hole is governing the circulation of objects in the galaxy.

 

 

UE.2.2        Intermediate-Massive Black Hole

 

When the Universe expands further, the hydrogen density is decreasing in the space. Smaller stars are formed. Similarly to super-massive black hole, a stellar-mass black hole is formed when a heavy star dies but lighter than a super-massive star.

 

When an intermediate-massive star is formed, it will form a localized center attraction for objects surrounding it. An intermediate-massive star will form smaller rotation system within the region of galaxy due to lower attraction force. When intermediate-massive star dies, it will become intermediate-massive black hole. Some of the orbiting objects, which were previously rotating around the star, may escape to space when the star dies.

 

 

UE.2.3        Stellar-Mass Black Hole

 

When the Universe expands further and further, smaller stars such as stellar-mass stars are formed due to lower density of hydrogen fuels. The stellar-mass stars formation may be activated by the shockwave of supernova, when another star dies.

 

When a stellar-mass star is formed, its negative charge attraction force produces a localized rotation effect of the objects surrounding it, such as the Solar system. When the star grows, the attraction force becomes stronger and more objects will be attracted.

 

When a stellar-mass star dies, it forms a stellar-mass black hole. The formation process is quite similar to other black holes or neutron star, but stellar-mass black hole contains high energy at the core compare to neutron star but lower energy compare to intermediate-massive star. When the fuels of the star are exhausted, the remaining carbon ashes undergoes runaway carbon fusion, the M&E fields of the carbon elements accrete, combine and restructure to fuse into iron ashes. During the restructuring process, the accumulated energy is large enough to blast away the electrons, leaving the core of M&E field at very high positive charge and forms the stellar-mass black hole.

 

The stellar-mass black hole possesses very high positive charge, like an atom with high proton number, but without electrons circulating around it. Therefore, a stellar-mass black hole possesses very strong electromagnetic force and the characteristic is similar to super-massive and intermediate-massive black hole.

 

Top

 

 

UE.3.0        FALLING INTO BLACK HOLE

 

A black hole is highly positive charged. It possesses very strong M&E field and exacts very strong electromagnetic force. It is able to attract any objects or electric dipoles that come near to it. If an object passes through outside of the event horizon and has velocity higher than the escape velocity, the object will pass by and the travel directions will be changed due to the centrifugal force.

 

When an objects fall into the event horizon of a black hole, there are two possible phenomena. First is the separation in atomic level, second is the collisions between particles.

 

 

UE.3.1        Charge Separation

 

When an object falls into the event horizon of black hole, the separation of the object in atomic level will happen. Whatever object that comes near to the black hole will be attracted by the electromagnetic force exacted by black hole. First, the object is pulled and accelerated to a very high velocity by the electrostatic force. The moving object in the strong M&E field of black hole will cause separation of charges in atomic level. If the electrons are separated to the left, the positive charged nucleus will be separated to the right.

 

The separated loose electrons will circulate within the M&E field of the black hole, like the electrons circulating in atomic level. It is predicted that the atoms will undergo second degree separation. The strong M&E field of black hole will burn off and destroy the M&E field of atom due to high velocity of the moving atoms. The destroyed atoms will produce photons and positrons. Energy is transformed into radiation and high energy particles. The positrons then will annihilate with the electrons and produce gamma rays. The gamma rays then can energize the electrons in the black hole and escape or travel to higher energy level within the event horizon of black hole.

 

 

UE.3.2        Collision of Particles

 

The atmosphere of a black hole contains many high energy electrons orbiting the core of black hole. When an object falls into this atmosphere, collisions between high energy electrons and object will happen. The M&E field of the object will be destroyed and transformed into radiation. The collisions will produce final product of positrons, which will then annihilate with the electrons live in the atmosphere of the black hole. The gamma rays then can energize the electrons in the black hole and escape or travel to higher energy level within the event horizon of black hole.

 

 

UE.3.3        Falling of Light

 

When light or photon comes near to a black hole, but outside of the event horizon, the photon passes through different pattern of the M&E field which is represented by refraction index. The photon will be slow down and travel in different direction. The phenomenon is called gravitational lensing and it is similar to diffraction light. This will be discussed more in chapter Kong Matter and Kong Energy.

 

If the photon possesses high energy, it can escape from the black hole, otherwise, it will travel into the event horizon of the black hole.

 

When a photon enters into the event horizon of a black hole, the speed of the photon will be slowed down within the strong M&E field of black hole. When the photon travels deeper into the black hole, the speed is lower, causing the photon to spiral inside the black hole. When the photon hits onto a circulating electron, it will energize the electron to higher energy level. The energy of photon is transferred to the kinetic energy of electron. This phenomenon is similar to the perturbation of photon as described in chapter Perturbation of Photon. The energy of photon then reduces by reducing the frequency of photon. Few perturbations of electrons cause the photon to lose all its energy. The electrons may emit back the energy at lower frequency. This process is similar to the black body radiation, where the light energy is fully absorbed by the black body.

 

Top

 

 

DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS

 

In this alternative description of black hole, a black hole is predicted like a huge giant atom, possesses very high positive charge and strong M&E field. The strength of the M&E field gradually reduces from inside to outside. The space between the core and event horizon is the atmosphere of black hole.

 

Objects are attracted by the electric force of a black hole and they are circulating at the equator of the black hole due to the magnetic force.

 

The event horizon of the black hole is corresponding to the furthest reactive magnetic gauss line of the giant atom. Electrons are distributed and orbiting at high velocity in the atmosphere of a black hole.

 

Black holes are formed when massive stars die. When the hydrogen fuels are exhausted in the plasmatic star; the core then undergoes runaway carbon fusion and accumulated high enough energy to fuse into iron ashes. The built up internal pressure is high enough to blast away the electrons. The remnant possesses high positive charge.

 

The classification of black hole is depending on the size of the event horizon. Black hole can be classified to 3 types, which are the super-massive, intermediate-massive and stellar-mass black hole. All three types are depending on the mass of the original star. Massive black hole is formed during earlier stage of Universe due to higher density of hydrogen fuels and vice versa for lighter black hole.

 

A black hole possesses very strong electromagnetic force and able to attract any object comes near to it. When an object falls into a black hole, the high electrostatic force accelerates the object into it. The high velocity object in the strong M&E field of the black hole causes charge separation in atomic level. The electrons and positive charged atoms will be separated. The M&E field of atoms will be destroyed and produces radiation and positrons. Positrons then annihilate with electrons to produce gamma rays. The gamma rays then energize the electrons in the atmosphere of black hole.

 

A photon comes near to the black hole will be diffracted. Photon that enters into the black hole will be slowed down in speed and travel in spiral. The energy of photon will be absorbed and transferred to electrons. The electrons may emit back the energy at lower frequency.

 

Top

 

 

| Main page |

 

This website is originated on 15-Mar-2007,

updated on 4-Jan-2009.

Copyright 2009 by Kok-Haw Kong

All rights reserved.

 

Please drop your comments in my blog if any.