Fundamental of Physics


Wave and Photon



WA. Fundamental of Wave WB. Photon WC. Kong Vector

WD. Energy of Photon

WE. Behaviors of Photon    



1. Wave 2. Properties of Wave 3. Wave Energy, Intensity and Power 4. Travel Medium of Wave
5. Interference Fringe of Wave 6. Cavity Radiation    




In this chapter, only brief descriptions will be presented here in order for the readers to capture some ideas and concepts about the wave. It is important that the readers shall understand the basic fundamental of wave. Before the author develops all the derivations and theories, he has a basic understanding in his mind. It is suggested that the readers shall follow the way of thought of the author in order to capture the whole concept easily.


The descriptions made in this chapter are the overall conceptual understanding of the wave. It is recommended that the readers shall re-read the descriptions below after read through the whole topic. You may find that the statements below will stimulate more ideas and understandings on other things that not captured here.





1)      To brief about the properties of wave.

2)      To brief about the energy, intensity and power of wave.

3)      To brief on the travel medium of wave.

4)      To highlight the shortcomings of interference of wave.

5)      To discuss the reason on the cavity radiation.





WA.1.0        WAVE


Wave refers to the electromagnet (EM) wave that covers the whole range of electromagnetic spectrum, ranging from long wave to gamma rays inclusive of visible light. Wave is made up of photon, which is particle-like wave-packet.


Wave possesses magnetic and electric (M&E) characteristics. The M&E components are perpendicular to each other. The M&E components are fixed at each frequency. It is because each component creates each and maintains the existence of each component. The ratio of the electric to the magnetic component is equal to the speed of light. More detail explanation is presented in the Chapter ‘Photon’.


Wave possesses the characteristic of reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference and polarity. The polarity of wave depends on the direction of M&E components.


Wave is different from particle wave such as water wave. Wave transfers energy in 3-dimensional while particle wave is only 2-dimensional. The y- and z-component of wave is the M&E components; the x-component is velocity. For particle wave, the y-component is the magnitude of energy and x-component is the velocity.


Wave requires a virtual medium to travel. The travel medium of wave is the M&E field. The energy of wave propagates through the M&E field in space. Wave travels according to the pattern of the M&E field. Wave travels within the M&E field of the Universe and reflected at the boundary of the Universe. This phenomenon is named the total internal reflection.


The energy of wave oscillates in the M&E field on its own frequency, propagates at the speed of light. Wave travels at the ultimate speed because wave is the energy at time-zero.







The properties of electromagnetic (EM) wave or photon are identified base on the followings:-

A)    Wavelength, l

B)     Frequency, f

C)    The traveling speed, c

D)    The energy, E


The traveling speed of wave is the speed of light, c. The relation between the speed, the frequency and the wavelength of wave is,

c = fl                                                                                                  … eq. WA.2.1


Wave is made up of photon, which is particle-like wave-packet. The energy of wave is expressed as

E = hf                                                                                                  … eq. WA.2.2

where   h = Plank’s constant


Wave complies to the above properties and equations.







Wave is made up of photons. Photon energy is defined by its frequency or the unit of wavelength. More detail definitions and explanations are presented in the Chapter ‘Photon’.


The energy of wave is defined as the net summation (adsorb and release) of the total numbers of photons for all range of frequencies.


The intensity of wave is defined as the net summation of the total quantity of photons for all range of frequency (the energy of wave) over the surface of propagation.


The power of wave is defined as the net total of photon energy collected over a period of time.


Photon carries the energy of one wavelength. The smaller the wavelength; the higher the frequency and the higher the energy level of photon. For energy conservation, photon loses its energy by reducing its frequency.







Wave requires a virtual medium to travel. The virtual medium is the M&E field distributed all over the space. The wave energy oscillates and travels through the quantized M&E field in the space. When wave meets another medium which has different strength and pattern of M&E field, wave travels according to the M&E field of the medium.







Interference of wave was previously understood that it is the phenomenon of two sources of coherent wave undergoes constructive and destructive superposition and produces interference fringes on the collecting target. This is always referring to the similar interference produced by water wave.


However, recently, many experiments found that when photon is shot one photon by one to a twin slit, the collected profile after number of photons shows interference fringe too. In this case, constructive and destructive superposition could not be happened.


This phenomenon is similar to the interference fringe produced by the electron incident beam, where the electrons shall not undergo constructive and destructive superposition.


Therefore, another new concept is introduced here and it is found that this principle is well-adopted for all kinds of characteristics of wave.


Again, this shows that electrons do not travel as wave, but they react base on the same principle.







There was a certain period of the century; scientists are active in dealing with hot problem. It was that of understanding the wavelength distribution of the radiation emitted by heated object.


Experiment was carried out using thin-walled tungsten cylinder. A tiny hole is drilled on the tungsten and the tungsten is heated to incandescence. Cavity radiation emerges from the small hole. The cavity radiation is much brighter than the radiation from the outer wall of the cavity, even though the temperatures of the outer and inner walls are more or less equal. Experiment shows that such cavity radiation has a very simple spectrum, determined indeed only by the temperature of the wall.


This phenomenon clearly shows that the micro-structure at the cavity is different from the outer wall. Base on the fact that electromagnetic wave can be produced by vibrating charges, we can conclude that the microstructure at the edge of cavity has high density of charge and imbalance of M&E field; this imbalance leads to the diffraction of particles and light when passes through the cavity, which are discussed in detail in the chapter “Behaviors of Photon” for photon, and “Particles and Waves” for particles under the topic of mass.







Wave is made up of particle-like wave-packet photons. Wave possesses the magnetic and electric components. These two components determine the characteristics of wave.


Wave possesses the properties of wavelength, frequency, speed of light and the energy. The energy, intensity and power of wave are defined base on the quantity of photons.


Wave requires a virtual medium to travel which is the M&E field in space. The energy of wave oscillates within the M&E field and travels from one position to another position.


A new and more convincing concept is introduced to explain the characteristic of wave. Wave as well as the moving particles such as electron incident beam do not undergo the constructive and destructive superposition .


Wave is named the kinetic-time-energy at time zero because it has no time reference. The ultimate speed of light is the speed at time zero.


In cavity radiation, more electromagnetic wave is produced at the cavity when heated up, due to the vibration of charges. The cavity radiation shows that the edge of cavity possesses imbalance or different pattern of M&E field.





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