PHYSICS

Fundamental of Physics

Mass

Wave and Photon

Universe

UNIVERSE

UA. Kong Gravitational Force UB. Sun UC. Earth

UD. Kong Extinction Theory

UE. Black Hole UF. Life of Universe UG. Properties of Universe UH. Kong Matter and Kong Energy

UD. KONG EXTINCTION THEORY

1. World Before K-T Extinction Event 2. Migration of Earth 3. Revival of Earth 4. World After Revival

 

INTRODUCTION

 

This chapter postulates the theory of extinction of the living creatures on the Earth. It introduces the migration theory of the Earth from another star to the Sun. The migration of the Earth causes the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) extinction event at approximately 65 millions years ago. During this event, most of the living creatures of the Earth are dead and lost. It also describes and postulates the left over fossils on the Earth and few others phenomenon that happened on the Earth during this period.

 

 

OBJECTIVES

 

1)      To introduce the theory of extinction of the Earth.

2)      To postulate the theory of migration of the Earth that causes the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event.

3)      To describe the world before K-T extinction event.

4)      To describe the reasons of the giant size of dinosaurs.

5)      To describe the continental drift theory of the Pangaea on the Earth.

6)      To describe the production of the fossils on the Earth.

7)      To describe the production of petroleum on the Earth.

8)      To describe the mineral sources on the Earth.

9)      To describe the world after K-T extinction event.

 

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UD.1.0        WORLD BEFORE K-T EXTINCTION EVENT

 

From the historical discoveries and the fossils records on the Earth, it is postulated that the Earth is not circulating the Sun in the previous world. The current Earth is a new migrant to this solar system. The K-T extinction event happened during the migration period of the Earth from another star to the current Solar system.

 

Before the Earth migrated to the current Solar system, it is postulated that the Earth is circulating around another star. The star is named Ex-star here. The Ex-star is smaller in size compare to the Sun. The circulation principle of the Earth is the same for the Ex-star and the Sun. The world before the K-T extinction event is named the Ex-world of the Earth.

 

From the chapter Kong Gravitational Force and Earth, we know that the attraction forces between the stars and the planets are governed by the M&E field which generated by the stars.

 

It is postulated that the distance between the Earth and the Ex-star is shorter and the attraction force is weaker. The smaller Ex-star possesses less charge density and exerts less attraction force to the Earth. The weaker M&E fields of the Ex-star induced weaker charge separation of the Earth. And the weaker charge density of the Earth exerts weaker attraction force to the objects on the Earth. Or in another words, the gravitational force is weaker.

 

It is postulated that the Ex-Earth is nearer to the Ex-star where the solar energy is higher than the current world. The higher solar energy heats up the Ex-world to higher atmosphere temperature.

 

The land during the Ex-world is made up of a super-continent, which is named Pangaea. All the creatures are moving within this continent. Most of the land is covered by water. The sea water level during this period is much higher due to the high ambient temperature. The North and South Poles of the Earth are not covered by ice.

 

In the Ex-world, the area covered by the sea is bigger than land area. The aquatic floras and faunas are more active and richer than the floras and faunas on land.

 

 

UD.1.1        Dinosaurs

 

Due to the weaker attraction force, the living creatures on the Ex-world are huge and giant in size. Dinosaurs and giant floras are the living creatures in the Ex-world. The sizes of the living creatures are huge because of the stability of the body. Most of the dinosaurs are walking in four legs.  Moving in four legs consumes more energy when running but can achieve better stability. A weaker force exerts to a bigger body is more stable. Also due to the weaker force, the activities and the movement of the giant creatures consume less energy.

 

If the Dinosaurs appear in the current world, which possesses higher attraction force, they require a lot of energy to move and to maintain their activities. They need to eat all the time to obtain sufficient energy for their metabolism. Their activities are slow and it is difficult for a Tyrannosaurus to hunt for food. For example, an elephant cannot run as fast as a leopard to hunt for food.

 

If the dinosaurs living in the Ex-world which has the attraction force as weak as the moon, the dinosaurs only consume little energy when hunting for food and able to survive. Furthermore, a bigger mass is more stable when standing on the moon compare to a smaller creatures. Therefore, the dinosaurs are huge in size. It is the same for floras. Weaker attraction force allows the plants to grow higher. The Brachiosaurus is able to reach the higher plants easily and obtain sufficient food for their activities.

 

The Ex-world has higher atmospheric temperature due to the higher solar energy. Higher ambient temperature allows cold-blooded dinosaurs to grow faster to achieve huge sizes. The higher ambient temperature also prevents the formation of ices at the North and South Poles. Therefore, dinosaurs are found and able to live in North and South Poles.

 

At the lower attraction force and higher ambient temperature, dinosaurs are able to achieve bigger size with lower metabolism and less food intake, faster activities with less energy consumptions, bigger in size for better stability, appear in North and South Poles.

 

Due to this environment, all the dinosaurs found on the Earth are able to live in the Ex-world.

 

 

UD.1.2        End Of Ex-World

 

At the late Cretaceous, the temperature of the Earth increases and the attraction force on the Earth also increases due to the extensive burning of the Ex-star. The Cretaceous world ends when the Ex-star dies.

 

The Earth loses the circulation tracks and moves in the space freely in darkness. The ambient temperature falls to below the icing temperature. The whole world becomes darkness and extremely cold. All the creatures on the Earth are dying. The activities on the Earth become minimal. The Earth enters into the Ice-Age. All the floras without photosynthesis are dying. All the faunas are dying due to over coldness. The surface of the sea forms a very thick ice. The curst of the Earth shrinks.

 

The solar energy drops to zero. However, some minimal activities still maintain by the heat generated from the thermonuclear fission reaction of the Earth. Some of the creatures are still able to survive in places near volcanoes and under the deep seas. All the death creatures are preserved under the super coldness environment.

 

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UD.2.0        MIGRATION OF EARTH

 

The Earth travels in the space for long time during the transition Cretaceous-Tertiary period. Most of the creatures on the Earth are dead and preserved. The Earth is traveling in the space under super coldness environment. The Earth is migrating from the Ex-star and searching for a new destiny.

 

The thermal energy from the core of Earth maintains minimal life and activities on the Earth, in stead of total extinction.

 

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UD.3.0        REVIVAL OF EARTH

 

The new life of the Earth begins when the Earth meets the Sun. The first sun-ray shines on the Earth shows the new hopes of the Earth. The Cenozoic Era begins.

 

The Earth is attracted by the strong electrostatic force from the Sun. The Earth starts to circulate around the Sun in the current Solar system. When the Earth is on track, the revival of the Earth begins.

 

The activities of the Earth become very active. The ice on the surface of the Earth starts to melt. The strong attraction force from the Sun induced the charge separation on the Earth and causes great impact on the structure of the Earth. The induced attraction force on the Earth creates great impact on the activities on the Earth.

 

 

UD.3.1        Continental Drift

 

The great impact of the attraction force from the Earth causes the mantle of the Earth becomes very active. The solar energy from the Sun heats up the crust of the Earth and further conducted to the mantle. The convection of the mantle becomes active and causes the movement of the crust of the Earth. The compression of crust layer produces mountains.

 

The crust layer of the Earth breaks moves, compresses and floats. The Pangaea is broken up into smaller continents. The continental drift continues until the Earth is stable and able to suit to the new environment. The broken Pangaea now becomes the 5 major continents on the Earth. There are the Africa, India, South America, Antarctica and Australia.

 

 

UD.3.2        Huge Ice Berg

 

During the early revival period of the Earth, the movement and the melting of the sea water at the equator causes the movement of the ice layer on the surface of the Earth. The compression effect on the ice layer produces huge ice berg on the Antarctica and the Arctic.

 

 

UD.3.3        Active Volcanoes

 

During the revival period of the Earth, the mantle of the Earth becomes very active. The compression of the crust produces mountains, the breaking of the crust produces deep sea level.

 

The breaking and the movement of the crust causes the lava actively pours out to the surface of the Earth. A super active volcanoes period happened. Almost the whole original surface of the crust is covered and replaced by the thick lava, especially in the deep sea.

 

 

UD.3.4        Fossils

 

During the revival period of the Earth, the lava is actively poured out to the surface of the crust. The land has thicker crust layer where the breaking of the crust is not so active. The volcano effect on land is not as great as happened to the sea. The lava poured out to the surface is not as thick as the sea.

 

Within a very short time, the preserved floras and faunas are covered by the lava without degradation. The hot lava melts and vaporizes the tissues of the faunas and left the bones covered under the lava layers. When the lava cools down, the covered faunas become fossils.

 

 

UD.3.5        Petroleum

 

During the revival period of the Earth, the lava is actively poured out from the upper mantle layer. The breaking of the continents happened on the thinner crust layer, which usually the deep sea layer. The breaking and movements of the continents causes great volume of lava continuously pours out to the surface of the crust.

 

All the death aquatic creatures were covered by very thick lava. When time goes by, the high pressure and temperature under this layer chemically change the hydrocarbon substances of the death floras and faunas to the petroleum. The great amount of aquatic living creatures in the Ex-world produces great amount of the petroleum today.

 

 

UD.3.6        Minerals

 

During the revival period of the Earth, the lava is actively poured out from the mantle layer. The mantle layer contains the bi-products of thermonuclear fission reaction which are the substances at lower mass number, such as irons, tins and etcetera. Therefore, the surface of the Earth is rich of minerals.

 

 

UD.3.7        Ecosystem

 

During the revival period of the Earth, the solidified gases vaporize and become the atmosphere of the Earth. The ice on the surface of the crust melts and becomes water. The water covers lower level lands and becomes the seas, lakes and rivers.

 

The breaking of the crust causes the lava to pour out actively. The temperature of the sea rises and boils up the sea water. The sea water vaporizes and rises up to the air. The water vapor then cools down, accumulates and becomes the clouds. The whole process creates a new ecosystem to the Earth.

 

The new ecosystem stabilizes and maintains the fixed temperature variations on the surface of the Earth.

 

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UD.4.0        WORLD AFTER REVIVAL

 

UD.4.1        Survivors

 

The revival of the Earth takes some time to stabilize. The remaining survived floras and faunas are continued to live in the new ecosystem and environment, but evolved to different creatures. The major changes are the size, the metabolism and the physiology of the organism.

 

 

UD.4.2        Floras

 

After the great impact and tremendous activities happened on the Earth during the revival of the Earth, the atmosphere of the Earth contains high concentration of carbon dioxide gases. The surface of the land is also rich of minerals. The environment becomes very encouraging for floras. Floras begin to breed and grow extensively. The photosynthesis of the plants consumes carbon dioxide and produce oxygen.

 

After certain long period, the carbon dioxide level in the atmosphere reduces and become low, while the oxygen level increases. The new atmospheric condition encourages the faunas to breed and grow.

 

 

UD.4.3        Faunas

 

Due to the stronger attraction force exerted by the Earth, the size of the living creatures on the Earth becomes smaller. A smaller body requires less energy for activities. The aquatic creatures on the sea are still able to achieve bigger size because moving in the water requires less energy due to the Archimedes principle.

 

Due to the cooler environment compare to the Ex-world, the cold-blooded reptiles achieve higher metabolism rate in order to maintain the body temperature for activities. In return, reptiles become smaller in size. The reptiles become minority in the current world.

 

On the other hand, the mammals play the major roles of evolutions. The new environment encourages mammals to conquer the Earth. Mammals are able to achieve the optimum physiology activities under cooler environment.

 

Due to the differences on the environment of each continent, the living creatures then evolve to adapt to different ecosystems. The living creatures with higher adaptation power continue to evolve. The diversification and classification of living creatures then becomes more obvious.

 

The atmosphere with thicker air or higher air density allows more evolutions for the flying creatures. The more advanced creatures then evolve to walk on two legs in stead of four legs to achieve lower energy consumption.

 

 

UD.4.4        Evolution

 

During the world after revival, the atmosphere of the Earth contains higher concentration of carbon dioxide and low concentration of oxygen. The ozone layer might not exist in the atmosphere. The direct radiation from the Sun penetrates onto the Earth surface contains high radiation of UV rays and above. The active and energetic radiations cause the hydrocarbon substances become unstable. The radiations stimulate and encourage mutations. The primitive and simple organisms and survivors were then mutated and diversified to various types of species.

 

The mutative evolution actively continues. Slowly, the oxygen concentration in the atmosphere increases due to the photosynthesis. The mutation then slows down after the forming of ozone layer which blocks the UV rays from entering into the Earth surface.

 

The second stage of evolution takes place. The continental drift produces different types of macro and micro environments that suitable for various and different types of organisms. They then further evolve to different classes and species depending on the adaptation to the environments.

 

Humans then learn to stand and walk with two legs due to less energy consumption. Humans start to learn, communicate and civilize.

 

 

UD.4.4        Current World

 

Millions of years after the migration of the Earth, the Earth becomes the current world where we are standing. The world is ruled by humans.

 

Although humans named themselves as the highest level of animals, they are still categorized as animals because their character and reaction are still similar to animals. In fact, humans are worse and more horrible than animals. Most of the animals hunt for food when they are hungry and to survive, but humans still hunt for food when they are full and throw the excess.

 

Although some humans defined themselves as civilized, they are still hunting humans in the way of monetary and power. In fact, humans are worse and more horrible than animals. Most of the animals kill different species, but humans kill the same species.

 

However, there are still many positive and good things about humans in this world. There are still many loves and adorations that build the beautiful and wonderful world.

 

Humans who live in different countries and different areas have different cultures and communicating in different languages such as English, Chinese, India and so on.

 

The Wisdomism ideology shall be adopted to improve the mentality and thinking of the human beings. Wisdomism is the key to achieve the highest level of civilization of humans.

 

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DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS

 

Before the Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction Event, the environment of the Ex-world is different from the current world. The difference in condition causes different type of living creatures on the Earth.

 

Dinosaurs are the major land living creatures in the Ex-world due to low attraction force of the Earth and high ambient temperature. Low attraction force of the Earth is due to the smaller size of the Ex-star. Higher ambient temperature is because of the shorter distance between the Earth and the Ex-star, where the solar energy is high. Such environment of the Ex-world encourages the existence of the dinosaurs, big size reptiles and floras.

 

The Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event begins when the Ex-star dies. The Earth loses its track and travels freely in the space. The Earth becomes extremely cold and dark. Most of the living creatures on the Earth are dead and preserved under super coldness. The Earth enters into the ice-age. Very minimal activities are still continued due to the heat generated by the thermonuclear fission reaction in the core of the Earth.

 

The Earth is searching and migrating to a new destiny and star. Until the Earth meets the Sun, the Earth is revived. The new condition of the Earth is generated. The Earth has higher attraction force and lower ambient temperature compare to the Ex-world.

 

During the revival period of the Earth, the continental drift happened. The Pangaea of the Earth is broken into 5 main continents. The movement of the crust layer produces mountains and ice bergs.

 

Great volcanism also happened especially in the sea where the crust layer is thinner. Great volume of lava is poured out from the mantle. The preserved and dead floras and faunas on the land or in the sea of the Earth are covered by lava. Those covered by the thin lava layer on the land become fossils. Those covered by the thick lava in the sea become petroleum, which produced under high pressure and temperature for long period.

 

During volcanism, great amount of minerals and carbon dioxide gases are released to the surface of the Earth. The heat from the lava boils up and vaporizes the sea water. The water vapors then rise to high level and become clouds. This phenomenon then produces a new ecosystem on the Earth. The early ecosystem with high carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere encourages floras to grow with photosynthesis. The later ecosystem with high oxygen concentration encourages faunas to grow.

 

The new environment with higher attraction and lower ambient temperature encourages new types of creatures to survive and evolves. The major changes are the size, the metabolism and the physiology of the organism.

 

The size of creatures becomes smaller due to stronger attraction force. The metabolism rate becomes greater due to cooler environment. The new environment encourages mammals to conquer the Earth.

 

The living creatures are then further diversified to more specific class under the evolution process at different continents.

 

The atmosphere with higher air density encourages the evolution on flying creatures. The more advanced creatures then evolve to walk on two legs in stead of four legs to achieve lower energy consumption.

 

Millions of years after the migration of the Earth, the Earth becomes the current world where we are standing.

 

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This website is originated on 15-Mar-2007,

updated on 4-Jan-2009.

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